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A list of all pages that have property "Extended model description" with value "A wave refraction program". Since there have been only a few results, also nearby values are displayed.

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  • Model:GNE  + (A multi-element (N, P, Si, C), multi-form A multi-element (N, P, Si, C), multi-form (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) set of biogeochemical sub-models that predicts annual river exports to the coast as a function of basin-aggregated natural and human impact characteristics; GNE is a generic framework used to run the basin models.ic framework used to run the basin models.)
  • Model:OptimalCycleID  + (A numerical method to analyse a vertical succession of strata and identify the most cyclical arrangement of constituent facies using an optimised transition probability matrix approach)
  • Model:LaMEM  + (A parallel 3D numerical code that can be uA parallel 3D numerical code that can be used to model various thermomechanical geodynamical processes such as mantle-lithosphere interaction for rocks that have visco-elasto-plastic rheologies. The code is build on top of PETSc and the current version of the code uses a marker-in-cell approach with a staggered finite difference discretization.taggered finite difference discretization.)
  • Model:SEA  + (A primitive equation ocean general circulation model based on the Bryan--Semtner--Cox formulation and designed to give good performance on clusters of workstations and massively parallel machines using the PVM message passing library.)
  • Model:DeltaSIM  + (A process-response model simulating the evA process-response model simulating the evolution and stratigraphy of fluvial dominated deltaic systems in two dimensions, based on simple approximations of erosion and deposition. The model is called DELTASIM, and was initially presented by Overeem et al. (2003) as AQUATELLUS. DELTASIM has several improvements, the main algorithm has been revised and the output can be presented as probabilistic output. can be presented as probabilistic output.)
  • Model:LONGPRO  + (A program to calculate the dynamical evolution of a stream's longitudinal profile)
  • Model:PyDeCe  + (A python code for modeling the dense endmeA python code for modeling the dense endmember of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) generated either by impulsive column collapse or sustained fountaining eruptions. Dense, particle rich PDC is modeled as solid-fluid mixture driven by gravity analogous to the granular flow models of Iverson and Denlinger (2001). Flow movement over real topography is realized by using a digital elevation model (DEM) file as one of the model inputs. Other model inputs include simulation time, flow density and viscosity, x and y coordinates (or longitude and latitude) of the source, among others, which are input to the model either using a config file or via command line arguments.config file or via command line arguments.)
  • Model:Hilltop and hillslope morphology extraction  + (A series of tools for extracting a networkA series of tools for extracting a network of hilltops from a landscape, computing curvature, slope and aspect over variable length scales from high resolution topography and performing hillslope traces from hilltops to valley bottoms to sample hilltop curvature, mean hillslope gradient and hillslope length. See Hurst et al. (2012) for full description. Hurst et al. (2012) for full description.)
  • Model:MCPM  + (A stand alone model for an idealized transA stand alone model for an idealized transect across a marsh channel-and-platform. The model simulates morphological evolution from sub-tidal to millennial time scales. In particular, the model explores the effect that soil creep (of both vegetated and unvegetated mud) has on channel bank dynamics, e.g., bank slumping. The model is written in Matlab. slumping. The model is written in Matlab.)
  • Model:Point-Tidal-flat  + (A stochastic point model for tidal flat evolution to study the influence of tidal currents and wind waves on tidal flat equilibrium.)
  • Model:BOM  + (A three-dimensional hydrodynamic multi-purA three-dimensional hydrodynamic multi-purpose model for coastal and shelf seas, which can be coupled to biological, re-suspension and contaminant models. Has been used in a variety of configurations from resolving grain-scale up to seasonal scale processes. Can be run with optional MPI parallelization or run-time visualization via PGPLOT. Programmed with the goal that the same executable can be used for all cases, by using allocatable arrays and cases defined via a single configuration file pointing to input data in files typically in the same directory. in files typically in the same directory.)
  • Model:SedFoam-2.0  + (A three-dimensional two-phase flow solver,A three-dimensional two-phase flow solver, SedFoam-2.0, is presented for sediment transport applications. The solver is extended upon twoPhaseEulerSedFoam ( In this approach the sediment phase is modeled as a continuum, and constitutive laws have to be prescribed for the sediment stresses. In the proposed solver, two different inter-granular stress models are implemented: the kinetic theory of granular flows and the dense granular flow rheology μ(I). For the fluid stress, laminar or turbulent flow regimes can be simulated and three different turbulence models are available for sediment transport: a simple mixing length model (one-dimensional configuration only), a k-ϵ and a k-ω model. The numerical implementation is first demonstrated by two validation test cases, sedimentation of suspended particles and laminar bed-load. Two applications are then investigated to illustrate the capabilities of SedFoam-2.0 to deal with complex turbulent sediment transport problems, such as sheet flow and scouring, with different combinations of inter-granular stress and turbulence models.ter-granular stress and turbulence models.)
  • Model:Coastal Landscape Transect Model (CoLT)  + (A transect spanning three coastal ecosysteA transect spanning three coastal ecosystems (bay-marsh-forest) evolves in yearly timesteps to show the evolution of the system. Geomorphic and carbon cycling processes allow for the exchange of material between the adjacent ecosystems. Each landscape unit is on the order of kilometers. Main geomorphic processes are featured in Kirwan et al. 2016 in GRL, and carbon processes track allochthonous and autocthonous carbon with time and depth.d autocthonous carbon with time and depth.)
  • Model:FineSed3D  + (A turbulence-resolving numerical model forA turbulence-resolving numerical model for fine sediment transport in the bottom boundary layer is developed. A simplified Eulerian two-phase flow formulation for the fine sediment transport is adopted. By applying the equilibrium Eulerian approximation, the particle phase velocity is expressed as a vectorial sum of fluid velocity, sediment settling velocity and Stokes number dependent inertia terms. The Boussinesq approximation is applied to simplify the governing equation for the fluid phase. This model utilizes a high accuracy hybrid compact finite difference scheme in the wall-normal direction, and uses the pseudo-spectral scheme in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The model allows a prescribed sediment availability as well as an erosional/depositional bottom boundary condition for sediment concentration. Meanwhile, the model also has the capability to include the particle inertia effect and hindered settling effect for the particle velocity.settling effect for the particle velocity.)
  • Model:ADCIRC  + (ADCIRC is a system of computer programs foADCIRC is a system of computer programs for solving time dependent, free surface circulation and transport problems in two and three dimensions. These programs utilize the finite element method in space allowing the use of highly flexible, unstructured grids. Typical ADCIRC applications have included:</br># modeling tides and wind driven circulation,</br># analysis of hurricane storm surge and flooding,</br># dredging feasibility and material disposal studies,</br># larval transport studies,</br># near shore marine operations.t studies, # near shore marine operations.)
  • Model:ALFRESCO  + (ALFRESCO was originally developed to simulALFRESCO was originally developed to simulate the response of subarctic vegetation to a changing climate and disturbance regime (Rupp et al. 2000a, 2000b). Previous research has highlighted both direct and indirect (through changes in fire regime) effects of climate on the expansion rate, species composition, and extent of treeline in Alaska (Rupp et al. 2000b, 2001, Lloyd et al. 2003). Additional research, focused on boreal forest vegetation dynamics, has emphasized that fire frequency changes – both direct (climate-driven or anthropogenic) and indirect (as a result of vegetation succession and species composition) – strongly influence landscape-level vegetation patterns and associated feedbacks to future fire regime (Rupp et al. 2002, Chapin et al. 2003, Turner et al. 2003). A detailed description of ALFRESCO can be obtained from the literature (Rupp et al. 2000a, 200b, 2001, 2002). The boreal forest version of ALFRESCO was developed to explore the interactions and feedbacks between fire, climate, and vegetation in interior Alaska (Rupp et al. 2002, 2007, Duffy et al. 2005, 2007) and associated impacts to natural resources (Rupp et al. 2006, Butler et al. 2007).es (Rupp et al. 2006, Butler et al. 2007).)
  • Model:AnugaSed  + (ANUGA is a hydrodynamic model for simulatiANUGA is a hydrodynamic model for simulating depth-averaged flows over 2D surfaces. This package adds two new modules (operators) to ANUGA. These are appropriate for reach-scale simulations of flows on mobile-bed streams with spatially extensive floodplain vegetation.</br></br>The mathematical framework for the sediment transport operator is described in Simpson and Castelltort (2006) and Davy and Lague (2009). This operator calculates an explicit sediment mass balance within the water column at every cell in order to handle the local disequilibria between entrainment and deposition that arise due to strong spatial variability in shear stress in complex flows.</br></br>The vegetation drag operator uses the mathematical approach of Nepf (1999) and Kean and Smith (2006), treating vegetation as arrays of objects (cylinders) that the flow must go around. Compared to methods that simulate the increased roughness of vegetation with a modified Manning's n, this method better accounts for the effects of drag on the body of the flow and the quantifiable differences between vegetation types and densities (as stem diameter and stem spacing). This operator can simulate uniform vegetation as well as spatially-varied vegetation across the domain. The vegetation drag module also accounts for the effects of vegetation on turbulent and mechanical diffusivity, following the equations in Nepf (1997, 1999).lowing the equations in Nepf (1997, 1999).)
  • Model:Anuga  + (ANUGA is a hydrodynamic modelling tool thaANUGA is a hydrodynamic modelling tool that allows users to model realistic flow problems in complex 2D geometries. Examples include dam breaks or the effects of natural hazards such as riverine flooding, storm surges and tsunami. The user must specify a study area represented by a mesh of triangular cells, the topography and bathymetry, frictional resistance, initial values for water level (called stage within ANUGA), boundary conditions and forces such as rainfall, stream flows, windstress or pressure gradients if applicable.</br>ANUGA tracks the evolution of water depth and horizontal momentum within each cell over time by solving the shallow water wave governing equation using a finite-volume method.</br></br>ANUGA also incorporates a mesh generator that allows the user to set up the geometry of the problem interactively as well as tools for interpolation and surface fitting, and a number of auxiliary tools for visualising and interrogating the model output.</br></br>Most ANUGA components are written in the object-oriented programming language Python and most users will interact with ANUGA by writing small Python scripts based on the ANUGA library functions. Computationally intensive components are written for efficiency in C routines working directly with Python numpy directly with Python numpy structures.)
  • Model:Acronym1D  + (Acronym1D is an add on to Acronym1R in thaAcronym1D is an add on to Acronym1R in that it adds a flow duration curve to Acronym1R, which computes the volume bedload transport rate per unit width and bedload grain size distribution from a specified surface grain size distribution (with sand removed).ain size distribution (with sand removed).)
  • Model:Acronym1R  + (Acronym1R computes the volume bedload transport rate per unit width and bedload grain size distribution from a specified surface grain size distribution (with sand removed).)
  • Model:AeoLiS  + (AeoLiS is a process-based model for simulaAeoLiS is a process-based model for simulating aeolian sediment transport in situations where supply-limiting factors are important, like in coastal environments. Supply-limitations currently supported are soil moisture contents, sediment sorting and armouring, bed slope effects, air humidity and roughness elements.ects, air humidity and roughness elements.)
  • Model:FwDET  + (Allow for quick estimation of water depthsAllow for quick estimation of water depths within a flooded domain using only the flood extent layer (polygon) and a DEM of the area. Useful for near-real-time flood analysis, especially from remote sensing mapping.</br>Version 2.0 offers improved capabilities in coastal improved capabilities in coastal areas.)
  • Model:Alpine3D  + (Alpine3D is a model for high resolution siAlpine3D is a model for high resolution simulation of alpine surface processes, in particular snow processes. The model can be forced by measurements from automatic weather stations or by meteorological model outputs (this is handled by the MeteoIO pre-processing library). The core three-dimensional Alpine3D modules consist of a radiation balance model (which uses a view factor approach and includes shortwave scattering and longwave emission from terrain and tall vegetation) and a drifting snow model solving a diffusion equation for suspended snow and a saltation transport equation. The processes in the atmosphere are thus treated in three dimensions and coupled to a distributed one dimensional model of vegetation, snow and soil model (Snowpack) using the assumption that lateral exchange is small in these media. The model can be used to force a distributed catchment hydrology model (AlpineFlow). The model modules can be run in a parallel mode, using either OpenMP and/or MPI. Finally, the Inishell tool provides a GUI for configuring and running Alpine3D.</br></br>Alpine3D is a valuable tool to investigate surface dynamics in mountains and is currently used to investigate snow cover dynamics for avalanche warning and permafrost development and vegetation changes under climate change scenarios. It could also be used to create accurate soil moisture assessments for meteorological and flood forecasting. for meteorological and flood forecasting.)
  • Model:WBMsed  + (An extension of the WBMplus (WBM/WTM) model. Introduce a riverine sediment flux component based on the BQART and Psi models.)
  • Model:GPM  + (Another derivative of the original SEDSIM,Another derivative of the original SEDSIM, completely rewritten from scratch. It uses finite differences (in addition to the original particle-cell method) to speed up steady flow calculations. It also incorporates compaction algorithms. A general description has been published. A general description has been published.)
  • Model:AquaTellUs  + (AquaTellUs models fluvial-dominated delta AquaTellUs models fluvial-dominated delta sedimentation. AquaTellUS uses a nested model approach; a 2D longitudinal profiles, embedded as a dynamical flowpath in a 3D grid-based space. A main channel belt is modeled as a 2D longitudinal profile that responds dynamically to changes in discharge, sediment load and sea level. Sediment flux is described by separate erosion and sedimentation components. Multiple grain-size classes are independently tracked. Erosion flux depends on discharge and slope, similar to process descriptions used in hill-slope models and is independent of grain-size. Offshore, where we assume unconfined flow, the erosion capacity decreases with increasing water depth. The erosion flux is a proxy for gravity flows in submarine channels close to the coast and for down-slope diffusion over the entire slope due to waves, tides and creep. Erosion is restricted to the main flowpath. This appears to be valid for the river-channel belt, but underestimates the spatial extent and variability of marine erosion processes.</br>Deposition flux depends on the stream velocity and on a travel-distance factor, which depends on grain size (i.e. settling velocity). The travel-distance factor is different in the fluvial and marine domains, which results in a sharp increase of the settling rate at the river mouth, mimicking bedload dumping.</br></br>Dynamic boundary conditions such as climatic changes over time are incorporated by increasing or decreasing discharge and sediment load for each time step.arge and sediment load for each time step.)
  • Model:BatTri  + (BATTRI does the mesh editing, bathymetry incorporation and interpolation, provides the grid generation and refinement properties, prepares the input file to Triangle and visualizes and saves the created grid.)
  • Model:BITM  + (BIT Model aims to simulate the dynamics ofBIT Model aims to simulate the dynamics of the principal processes that govern the formation and evolution of a barrier island. The model includes sea-level oscillations and sediment distribution operated by waves and currents. Each process determines the deposition of a distinct sediment facies, separately schematized in the spatial domain. Therefore, at any temporal step, it is possible to recognize six different stratigraphic units: bedrock, transitional, overwash, shoreface aeolian and lagoonal. overwash, shoreface aeolian and lagoonal.)
  • Model:BRaKE  + (BRaKE is a 1-D bedrock channel profile evoBRaKE is a 1-D bedrock channel profile evolution model. It calculates bedrock erosion in addition to treating the delivery, transport, degradation, and erosion-inhibiting effects of large, hillslope-derived blocks of rock. It uses a shear-stress bedrock erosion formulation with additional complexity related to flow resistance, block transport and erosion, and delivery of blocks from the hillslopes.nd delivery of blocks from the hillslopes.)
  • Model:Barrier3D  + (Barrier3D is an exploratory model that resBarrier3D is an exploratory model that resolves cross-shore and alongshore topographic variations to simulate the morphological evolution of a barrier segment over time scales of years to centuries. Barrier3D tackles the scale separation between event-based and long-term models by explicitly yet efficiently simulating dune evolution, storm overwash, and a dynamically evolving shoreface in response to individual storm events and sea-level rise. Ecological-geomorphological couplings of the barrier interior can be simulated with a shrub expansion and mortality a shrub expansion and mortality module.)
  • Model:BarrierBMFT  + (BarrierBMFT is a coupled model framework fBarrierBMFT is a coupled model framework for exploring morphodynamic interactions across components of the entire coastal barrier system, from the ocean shoreface to the mainland forest. The model framework couples Barrier3D (Reeves et al., 2021), a spatially explicit model of barrier evolution, with the Python version of the Coastal Landscape Transect model (CoLT; Valentine et al., 2023), known as PyBMFT-C (Bay-Marsh-Forest Transect Model with Carbon). In the BarrierBMFT coupled model framework, two PyBMFT-C simulations drive evolution of back-barrier marsh, bay, mainland marsh, and forest ecosystems, and a Barrier3D simulation drives evolution of barrier and back-barrier marsh ecosystems. As these model components simultaneously advance, they dynamically evolve together by sharing information annually to capture the effects of key cross-landscape couplings. BarrierBMFT contains no new governing equations or parameterizations itself, but rather is a framework for trading information between Barrier3D and PyBMFT-C.</br></br>The use of this coupled model framework requires Barrier3D v2.0 (</br> and PyBMFT-C v1.0 ( (
  • Model:RiverSynth  + (Based on the publication: Brown, RA, PastBased on the publication:</br></br>Brown, RA, Pasternack, GB, Wallender, WW. 2013. Synthetic River Valleys: Creating Prescribed Topography for Form-Process Inquiry and River Rehabilitation Design. Geomorphology 214: 40–55.
  • Model:Badlands  + (Basin and Landscape Dynamics (Badlands) isBasin and Landscape Dynamics (Badlands) is a parallel TIN-based landscape evolution model, built to simulate topography development at various space and time scales. The model is presently capable of simulating hillslope processes (linear diffusion), fluvial incision ('modified' SPL: erosion/transport/deposition), spatially and temporally varying geodynamic (horizontal + vertical displacements) and climatic forces which can be used to simulate changes in base level, as well as effects of climate changes or sea-level fluctuations.climate changes or sea-level fluctuations.)
  • Model:Bifurcation  + (Bifurcation is a morphodynamic model of a Bifurcation is a morphodynamic model of a river delta bifurcation. Model outputs include flux partitioning and 1D bed elevation profiles, all of which can evolve through time. Interaction between the two branches occurs in the reach just upstream of the bifurcation, due to the development of a transverse bed slope. Aside from this interaction, the individual branches are modeled in 1D. </br></br>The model generates ongoing avulsion dynamics automatically, arising from the interaction between an upstream positive feedback and the negative feedback from branch progradation and/or aggradation. Depending on the choice of parameters, the model generates symmetry, soft avulsion, or full avulsion. Additionally, the model can include differential subsidence. It can also be run under bypass conditions, simulating the effect of an offshore sink, in which case ongoing avulsion dynamics do not occur.</br></br>Possible uses of the model include the study of avulsion, bifurcation stability, and the morphodynamic response of bifurcations to external changes.ponse of bifurcations to external changes.)
  • Model:Bio  + (Biogenic mixing of marine sediments)
  • Model:BlockLab  + (Blocklab treats landscape evolution in lanBlocklab treats landscape evolution in landscapes where surface rock may be released as large blocks of rock. The motion, degradation, and effects of large blocks do not play nicely with standard continuum sediment transport theory. BlockLab is intended to incorporate the effects of these large grains in a realistic way. of these large grains in a realistic way.)
  • Model:Caesar  + (CAESAR is a cellular landscape evolution model, with an emphasis on fluvial processes, including flow routing, multi grainsize sediment transport. It models morphological change in river catchments.)
  • Model:CoAStal Community-lAnDscape Evolution (CASCADE) model  + (CASCADE combines elements of two exploratoCASCADE combines elements of two exploratory morphodynamic models of barrier evolution -- barrier3d (Reeves et al., 2021) and the BarrierR Inlet Environment (brie) model (Nienhuis & Lorenzo-Trueba, 2019) -- into a single model framework. Barrier3d, a spatially-explicit cellular exploratory model, is the core of CASCADE. It is used within the CASCADE framework to simulate the effects of individual storm events and SLR on shoreface evolution; dune dynamics, including dune growth, erosion, and migration; and overwash deposition by individual storms. BRIE is used to simulate large-scale coastline evolution arising from alongshore sediment transport processes; this is accomplished by connecting individual Barrier3d models through diffusive alongshore sediment transport. Human dynamics are incorporated in cascade in two separate modules. The first module simulates strategies for preventing roadway pavement damage during overwashing events, including rebuilding roadways at sufficiently low elevations to allow for burial by overwash, constructing large dunes, and relocating the road into the barrier interior. The second module incorporates management strategies for maintaining a coastal community, including beach nourishment, dune construction, and overwash removal.ment, dune construction, and overwash removal.)
  • Model:CHILD  + (CHILD computes the time evolution of a topographic surface z(x,y,t) by fluvial and hillslope erosion and sediment transport.)