Also known as
Model type Single
Model part of larger framework
Incorporated models or components:
Spatial dimensions 1D, 2D, 3D
Spatial extent Continental, Regional-Scale, Landscape-Scale, Watershed-Scale, Reach-Scale, Patch-Scale, Grain-Scale
Model domain Coastal, Marine
One-line model description Bergen Ocean Model
Extended model description A three-dimensional hydrodynamic multi-purpose model for coastal and shelf seas, which can be coupled to biological, re-suspension and contaminant models. Has been used in a variety of configurations from resolving grain-scale up to seasonal scale processes. Can be run with optional MPI parallelization or run-time visualization via PGPLOT. Programmed with the goal that the same executable can be used for all cases, by using allocatable arrays and cases defined via a single configuration file pointing to input data in files typically in the same directory.


First name Jarle
Last name Berntsen
Type of contact Technical contact
Institute / Organization University of Bergen
Postal address 1 Johannes Bruns gt. 12
Postal address 2
Town / City Bergen
Postal code N-5008
Country Norway
Email address
Phone (+47) 55 58 48 54
Fax (+47) 55 58 96 72

First name Helge
Last name Avlesen
Type of contact Model developer
Institute / Organization NORCE Norwegian Research Centre
Postal address 1
Postal address 2
Town / City
Postal code
Country Norway
Email address

Supported platforms Unix, Linux, Mac OS, Windows
Other platform
Programming language
Other program language Fortran95
Code optimized Single Processor, Multiple Processors
Multiple processors implemented Distributed memory
Nr of distributed processors
Nr of shared processors
Start year development 1995
Does model development still take place? Yes
If above answer is no, provide end year model development
Code development status Only maintenance
When did you indicate the 'code development status'? 2020
Model availability As code
Source code availability
(Or provide future intension)
Through web repository
Source web address
Source csdms web address
Program license type Other
Program license type other
Memory requirements
Typical run time

Describe input parameters Wind, rivers, submerged inlets, lateral open boundaries, surface heat flux, a limited number of numerical schemes can be chosen, ...
Input format ASCII, Binary
Other input format
Describe output parameters Currents, salinity, temperature, ... all model variables.
Output format ASCII, Binary
Other output format
Pre-processing software needed? Yes
Describe pre-processing software idealized experiments can be run with simple text files as input, but for realistic cases input data needs to be created with e.g. python, matlab or fortran scripts.
Post-processing software needed? Yes
Describe post-processing software model supports a variety of output to ascii or binary files that relatively easy can be read into e.g. matlab or python plotting packages. Gnuplot as also been used.
Visualization software needed? Yes
If above answer is yes Matlab
Other visualization software Python matplotlib, Gnuplot, etc.

Describe processes represented by the model Free surface flow of water. Conservation of heat, salinity, mass, turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation.
Describe key physical parameters and equations Current speed, temperature, salinity, sea surface elevation, wind speed, river fluxes.

Based on Navier Stokes equations, Boussinesq approximation, terrain following coordinates (sigma)

Describe length scale and resolution constraints Uniform horisontal resolution, i.e. works best for resolutions < 20km.
Describe time scale and resolution constraints No assimilation means it works best for simulations shorter than ~6months unless boundary conditions are carefully tuned to avoid model drift.
Describe any numerical limitations and issues Free surface formulation does not support rapid changes in water elevation like hydraulic jumps in rivers.

Describe available calibration data sets
Upload calibration data sets if available:
Describe available test data sets
Upload test data sets if available:
Describe ideal data for testing

Do you have current or future plans for collaborating with other researchers?
Is there a manual available? Yes
Upload manual if available: Media:USERS GUIDE for a modesplit sigma-coordinate numerical ocean model.pdf
Model website if any
Model forum / discussion board

This part will be filled out by CSDMS staff

OpenMI compliant No but possible
BMI compliant No but possible
WMT component No but possible
PyMT component
Is this a data component
Can be coupled with:
Model info
Jarle Berntsen
Nr. of publications: 45
Total citations: 1099
h-index: 17
Qrcode BOM.png
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Nr. of publications: 45
Total citations: 1099
h-index: 17

Featured publication(s)YearModel describedType of ReferenceCitations
Berntsen, Jarle; Furnes, Gunnar; 2005-05-01. Internal pressure errors in sigma-coordinate ocean models—sensitivity of the growth of the flow to the time stepping method and possible non-hydrostatic effects. Continental Shelf Research, 25, 829–848. 10.1016/j.csr.2004.09.025
(View/edit entry)
Model overview 44
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Input Files

Output Files