Also known as Python model for Dense Current forming eruptions
Model type Single
Model part of larger framework
Note on status model
Date note status model
Incorporated models or components:
Spatial dimensions 2D
Spatial extent
Model domain Terrestrial
One-line model description Python model for Dense Current forming eruptions (PyDeCe) is a tool for modeling the dense endmember of pyroclastic density currents generated either by impulsive column collapse or sustained fountaining eruptions.
Extended model description A python code for modeling the dense endmember of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) generated either by impulsive column collapse or sustained fountaining eruptions. Dense, particle rich PDC is modeled as solid-fluid mixture driven by gravity analogous to the granular flow models of Iverson and Denlinger (2001). Flow movement over real topography is realized by using a digital elevation model (DEM) file as one of the model inputs. Other model inputs include simulation time, flow density and viscosity, x and y coordinates (or longitude and latitude) of the source, among others, which are input to the model either using a config file or via command line arguments.

pyroclastic density currents,

Name Indujaa Ganesh
Type of contact Model developer
Institute / Organization University of Arizona
Postal address 1 2048 E 1st St #B
Postal address 2
Town / City Tucson
Postal code 85719
State Arizona
Country United States
Email address
Phone 510 925 7056

Supported platforms
Unix, Linux, Mac OS, Windows
Other platform
Programming language


Other program language
Code optimized Single Processor, Multiple Processors
Multiple processors implemented Distributed memory
Nr of distributed processors
Nr of shared processors
Start year development 2019
Does model development still take place? No
If above answer is no, provide end year model development 2019
Code development status Only maintenance
When did you indicate the 'code development status'? 2021
Model availability
Source code availability
(Or provide future intension)
Through web repository
Source web address
Source csdms web address
Program license type GPL v3
Program license type other
Memory requirements
Typical run time Minutes to hours depending on the input.

Describe input parameters [[Describe input parameters model::The required input files are

1) A config file (.ini file)

A config file containing values for all the model variables. Name of this config file (not absolute path) is input to the model through the --config argument. See PDCevent.ini for template. The config file must be stored in the same directory as the python script. The config file name is used as the name of the output parent directory under which all the model generated output files are stored.

2) A georeferenced digital elevation model (DEM) (.tif file)

A geotiff file of the topography data to use in the model. The model domain, grid spacing, and number of cells are automatically determined from the input DEM. The absolute path of DEM geotiff file to use is input via the config file. All output geotiff files generated by the model will have the same spatial reference and resolution as the input DEM.

The model is executed using the following command:

python --config CONFIGFILE --type INITIATIONTYPE [--options]

More details on the command line arguments can be found in the model repository’s wiki page.]]

Input format Binary
Other input format
Describe output parameters The model generates several georeferenced tiff files upon completion. These geotiff files can be viewed using any GIS software. Each file is a 2D map of a modeled flow property such as thickness, velocity etc. Additionally, multiband geotiff files containing similar 2D maps at multiple user-defined time intervals during the simulation.

Depth – Map of the final 2D flow thickness (in meters).

Depthbin – Binary map where cells with thickness > user-defined threshold thickness have a value of 1 and the rest of the cells have a value of 0.

MaxDepth – Map of the maximum flow depth obtained at each cell during the entire simulation (in meters).

MaxVelocity – Map of the maximum velocity obtained at each cell during the entire simulation (in m/s).

MomentumX – Map of final 2D flow momentum along the X direction (in sq. m/s).

MomentumY – Map of final 2D flow momentum along the Y direction (in sq. m/s).

Velocity – Map of the final 2D flow velocity (in m/s).

VelocityX – Map of the final 2D flow velocity along the X direction (in m/s).

VelocityY – Map of the final 2D flow velocity along the Y direction (in m/s).

The multiband (movie) files output by the model are DepthMovie, MomentumXMovie, MomentumYMovie, VelocityMovie, VelocityXMovie, VelocityYMovie.

Output format Binary
Other output format
Pre-processing software needed? No
Describe pre-processing software
Post-processing software needed? No
Describe post-processing software
Visualization software needed? Yes
If above answer is yes ESRI
Other visualization software Any GIS software (ArcGIS, QGIS, GrassGIS, etc.) or programming libraries capable of handling georeferenced TIFF files

Describe processes represented by the model The model simulates transport and deposition from the dense endmember of a pyroclastic density currents generated either by impulsive column collapse or sustained fountaining eruptions.
Describe key physical parameters and equations The pyroclastic flow is treated as a two-component granular flow with >30% volume fraction of solids supported by excess pore fluid pressure in a laminar Newtonian fluid. This approach of modeling mass flows is adapted from the debris flow model of Iverson and Denlinger (2001). The model solves depth averaged mass and momentum conservation equations in 2D, with suitable source terms, to determine the thickness and velocity of the current at each point in time and space. The current is primarily driven by gravity and the motion of the current is opposed by friction and viscous resistance. A shear-rate dependent variable basal friction model is used to determine the basal friction as the flow evolves (Jop et al., 2006). A 1st order Godunov scheme with an HLLC Riemann solver is used to calculate the flux across cell interfaces (Toro, 2009) and the source terms are solved separately using an explicit Euler method.
Describe length scale and resolution constraints The model grid spacing is limited by the resolution of the input topography dataset.
Describe time scale and resolution constraints
Describe any numerical limitations and issues

Describe available calibration data sets
Upload calibration data sets if available:
Describe available test data sets
Upload test data sets if available:
Describe ideal data for testing

Do you have current or future plans for collaborating with other researchers?
Is there a manual available? No
Upload manual if available:
Model website if any
Model forum / discussion board

This part will be filled out by CSDMS staff

OpenMI compliant No but possible
BMI compliant No but possible
WMT component No but possible
PyMT component No but possible
Is this a data component No
Can be coupled with:
Model info
Nr. of publications: 1
Total citations: 0
h-index: --"--" is not a number.
m-quotient: 0
Qrcode PyDeCe.png
Link to this page




Nr. of publications: 1
Total citations: 0
h-index: --"--" is not a number.
m-quotient: 0

Featured publication(s)YearModel describedType of ReferenceCitations
Ganesh, I.; 2021. PyDeCe: First release of PyDeCe. , , 10.5281/zenodo.4724233
(View/edit entry)
2021 PyDeCe

Source code ref.

See more publications of PyDeCe



Input Files

Output Files