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Also known as
Model type Single
Model part of larger framework
Incorporated models or components:
Spatial dimensions
Spatial extent
Model domain Marine
One-line model description The Second Generation Chesapeake Bay Operational Forecast System (CBOFS2): A ROMS‐Based Modeling System
Extended model description This is a special case of the Regional Ocean Modeling System(ROMS). The National Ocean Service presently has an Operational Forecast System (CBOFS) for the Chesapeake Bay which generates only water levels and depth‐integrated currents. As a next generation system, a fully three‐dimensional, baroclinic Forecast System (CBOFS2) was developed, calibrated and validated; this system will produce water levels, currents, temperature and salinity. First, a two‐month tides only simulation was conducted to validate the water levels and currents and thereafter, a synoptic hindcast simulation from June 01, 2003–September 01, 2005 was conducted to validate water levels, currents, temperature and salinity. Upon comparison with observations, CBOFS2 for the most part met the target NOS water level error criteria and for current error, the criteria were met exceptionally well; the temperature and salinity errors were frequently less than 1 C and 3 PSU respectively. Hence, the predictive accuracy of CBOFS2 warranted it being accepted as a suitable three‐dimensional upgrade to CBOFS.

Please see for details.


First name Lyon
Last name Lanerolle
Type of contact Technical contact
Institute / Organization NOAA
Postal address 1
Postal address 2
Town / City Silver Spring
Postal code 20901
State Maryland
Country United States
Email address

Supported platforms Unix, Linux, Windows
Other platform CygWin
Programming language Fortran90
Other program language
Code optimized
Multiple processors implemented
Nr of distributed processors
Nr of shared processors
Start year development 1998
Does model development still take place? No
If above answer is no, provide end year model development
Code development status
When did you indicate the 'code development status'?
Model availability As code
Source code availability
(Or provide future intension)
Through web repository
Source web address
Source csdms web address
Program license type Other
Program license type other MIT/X License, see License_ROMS.txt.
Memory requirements Depends on application but it is relatively small in distributed-memory since only the tile partition is allocated for global and local arrays. All the state model variables are dynamically allocated and passed as arguments to the computational routines via de-referenced pointer structures.
Typical run time Depends on application and resolution. Usually it takes several hours to run a realistic application for a simulation month.

Describe input parameters There are hundreds of input parameters for the physical, ecosystem, and sediment models. In addition, there are input scripts for floats, stations, model coupling, and data assimilation.
Input format ASCII
Other input format ASCII (input scripts), NetCDF (input fields).
Describe output parameters There are hundreds of output parameters and fields that are written to several NetCDF files.
Output format
Other output format NetCDF, CF-convections.
Pre-processing software needed? No
Describe pre-processing software
Post-processing software needed? Yes
Describe post-processing software Yes, ROMS I/O is via NetCDF and follows CF-standard conventions. Therefore, any visualization software for NetCDF files can be used for pre- and post-processing.
Visualization software needed? Yes
If above answer is yes
Other visualization software Yes, a plotting package is provided. It uses the NCAR's graphics Library. Any visualization package for NetCDF files can be used, like IDL, Matlab, and others.

Describe processes represented by the model ROMS resolved fast (gravity waves) and slow (Rossby waves) dynamics. Hydrostatic approximation but there is a nonhydrostatic version of ROMS.
Describe key physical parameters and equations Navier-Stokes primitive equations. Bio-optical, biogeochemical, and ecosystem models equations. Cohesive and non cohesive sediment equations. Several vertical turbulece equations (KPP, GLS, MY-2.5). Air-Sea interaction coupling equations (COARE). Bottom boundary layer model equations.
Describe length scale and resolution constraints Estuary, regional, and basin scales. There are couple of global applications.
Describe time scale and resolution constraints Hours, days, seasons. It also can be used for climate research (decades).
Describe any numerical limitations and issues ROMS has a predictior-corrector algorithm that is efficient and accuarate. This class of model (terrain-following) exhibits stronger sensitivity to topography which results in pressure gradient errors. ROMS has several pressure gradient algorithms that minimize this problem.

Describe available calibration data sets There are several idealized and realistic test cases. Some of the idealized test cases have quasi-analytical solutions.
Upload calibration data sets if available:
Describe available test data sets We have a website for test problems:
Upload test data sets if available:
Describe ideal data for testing We have test cases for both laboratory and field observations. In the past, we have used data from rotating tanks.

Do you have current or future plans for collaborating with other researchers? Yes, we work with several modeling groups around the world.
Is there a manual available? Yes
Upload manual if available:
Model website if any
Model forum / discussion board
Comments The documentation about ROMS can be found in WikiROMS:

There is a very active ROMS user's forum:


This part will be filled out by CSDMS staff

OpenMI compliant No but possible
BMI compliant Yes
WMT component No but possible
PyMT component
Is this a data component
Can be coupled with:
Model info
Lyon Lanerolle
Nr. of publications: 7
Total citations: 5579
h-index: 7
m-quotient: 0.25
Qrcode CBOFS2.png
Link to this page




Nr. of publications: 7
Total citations: 5579
h-index: 7
m-quotient: 0.25

Featured publication(s)YearModel describedType of ReferenceCitations
Lanerolle, L.W.J.; Patchen, R.C.; Aikman III, F.; 2011. The Second Generation Chesapeake Bay Operational Forecast System (CBOFS2): Model Development and Skill Assessment.. .
(View/edit entry)
2011 CBOFS2
Model overview 10
Haidvogel, D.B.; Arango, H.; Budgell, W.P.; Cornuelle, B.D.; Curchitser, E.; Di Lorenzo, E.; Fennel, K.; Geyer, W.R.; Hermann, A.J.; Lanerolle, L.; Levin, J.; McWilliams, J.C.; Miller, A.J.; Moore, A.M.; Powell, T.M.; Shchepetkin, A.F.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Warner, J.C.; Wilkin, J.; 2008. Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: Formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System. Journal of Computational Physics, 227, 3595–3624. 10.1016/
(View/edit entry)
2008 CBOFS2
Model overview 840
Shchepetkin, Alexander F.; McWilliams, James C.; 2005. The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): a split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model. Ocean Modelling, 9, 347–404. 10.1016/j.ocemod.2004.08.002
(View/edit entry)
2005 CBOFS2
Model application 2987
Song, Yuhe; Haidvogel, Dale; 1994. A Semi-implicit Ocean Circulation Model Using a Generalized Topography-Following Coordinate System. Journal of Computational Physics, 115, 228–244. 10.1006/jcph.1994.1189
(View/edit entry)
1994 CBOFS2
Model overview 618
See more publications of CBOFS2




Input Files

Output Files