Property:Extended movie description

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3
This is a 3D model of delta growth. The initial sequence shows the growth of the delta as sediment is deposited seaward. The following sequences show cross sectional views of the formed delta. The color scale represents deposited sediment grain size where blue colors are larger grain sizes and reds are smaller grain sizes.  +
A
Simulation of river bedform by large eddy simulation (LES), and sediment as spherical particles. Related papers are: doi: 10.1002/wrcr.20457 doi: 10.1002/wrcr.20303 doi: 10.1029/2012WR011911  +
This animation shows the river meander development on the Allier River near Chateau de Lys, France. This recreation was made from aerial photographs and maps from the years 1946, 1960, 1980, 1982, 1992, 1995 and 1997.  +
Subglacial discharge simulated for Gornergletscher: arrows depict discharge in the distributed system, blue shows discharge in channels.  +
This clip is an interview with Prof. Bob Anderson, University of Colorado, it was posted in the Daily Camera, the Boulder newspaper. Prof Anderson talks about a study on the northern coastline of Alaska midway between Point Barrow and Prudhoe Bay where the coast is eroding by 15m annually because of declining sea ice, warming seawater and increased wave activity. A warmer Arctic with a longer sea-ice free season have led to the steady retreat of 15m average and 25m maximum a year of the 4m high bluffs -- frozen blocks of silt and peat containing 50 to 80 percent ice --. These blocks then topple into the Beaufort Sea during the summer months by a combination of large waves pounding the shoreline and warm seawater melting the base of the bluffs.  +
Long stretches of permafrost coast in the Arctic region consist of ice-rich sediments. These permafrost areas have been experiencing rapid warming over the last decades. The warming melts the permafrost, but it also exposes the coast longer to the forces of the ocean because the sea-ice free season has expanded. This particular movie shows the permafrost coast near DrewPoint, along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. At Drew Point, there are nowadays about twice as many days of open water than in the late 1970's. This results in more absorption of heat in the ocean water. The bluff is approximately 4.5 m high, and the block in the movies is about 13 m long. The block is not necessarily eroded by waves, but also just by melt ( this is called - thermal erosion). The warm sea water needs to touch the block and then rapid melt will occur. The massive block disappears in about a week.  +
Long stretches of permafrost coast in the Arctic region consist of ice-rich sediments. These permafrost areas have been experiencing rapid warming over the last decades. The warming melts the permafrost, but it also exposes the coast longer to the forces of the ocean because the sea-ice free season has expanded. This particular simulation shows the permafrost coast near DrewPoint, along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. At Drew Point, there are nowadays about twice as many days of open water than in the late 1970's. The simulation calculates the distance to the sea ice edge, which is 100's of kilometers in August. This means that storms can generate larger waves during that time of the year. Also when a storm passes and there are sustained winds, water will be 'set up' against the coast. You can see this increase in teh water level in the movie. Absorped heat in the ocean water melts the ice in the toppled block. The bluff is approximately 4.5 m high. The block is not necessarily eroded by waves, but also just by melt ( this is called - thermal erosion). The warm sea water needs to touch the block and then rapid melt will occur. The massive block disappears in about a week.  +
Daily estimates of the sea ice concentration based on remotely-sensed passive microwave data for 2009. The red colors are 100% sea ice, whereas the blue colors show sea ice free conditions (also called open water).  +
one can watch a month of coastal melting in one minute. This movie is a time-lapse of 15 min shots taken at Drew Point along the Beaufort Sea. Drew Point is about halfway between Point Barrow and Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska.This particular movie was taken in August 13th-September 11th, 2010. The coastal bluffs you see in the ovie are about 4 m high, the blocks that erode away were measured to be 10.5m long. A large volume of the permafrost is just ice (uto 70%), the rest is fine sediment and peat as well as grass that grows in the upper 35 cm (the active layer). There are polar bears passing by!  +
Time-lapse series of coastal bluff erosion along the Arctic Coast at Drew Point, Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Coastal erosion rates exceeding 20 meters per year are being observed along the Arctic Coast, and they are especially high along Alaska’s Beaufort Sea coastline. Comparison of aerial photos and LANDSAT imagery suggest accelerating erosion rates over the last 50 years. Arctic sea ice coverage has been declining dramatically over the last few decades and record September minima were observed in 2007. These observations suggest a causal relationship between sea ice decline and coastal change. The timelapse movies presented here show that the relative roles of thermal and wave energy may be significant. The bluffs consist of silt and have high ice-content. The thawing of the ice-rich bluffs by relatively warm seawater undermines coastal bluffs, leading to topple failures of discrete blocks defined by ice-wedge polygons. The fine-grained nature of these materials does not function as a protective barrier for incoming waves, so there is not a strong negative feedback on erosion rates, so that coastal erosion rates in this setting are likely to increase with continued Arctic warming.  +
Time-lapse series of coastal bluff erosion along the Arctic Coast at Drew Point, Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Coastal erosion rates exceeding 20 meters per year are being observed along the Arctic Coast, and they are especially high along Alaska’s Beaufort Sea coastline. Comparison of aerial photos and LANDSAT imagery suggest accelerating erosion rates over the last 50 years. Arctic sea ice coverage has been declining dramatically over the last few decades and record September minima were observed in 2007. These observations suggest a causal relationship between sea ice decline and coastal change. The timelapse movies presented here show that the relative roles of thermal and wave energy may be significant. The bluffs consist of silt and have high ice-content. The thawing of the ice-rich bluffs by relatively warm seawater undermines coastal bluffs, leading to topple failures of discrete blocks defined by ice-wedge polygons. The fine-grained nature of these materials does not function as a protective barrier for incoming waves, so there is not a strong negative feedback on erosion rates, so that coastal erosion rates in this setting are likely to increase with continued Arctic warming. This movie was captured during the summer of 2009 looks from the sea towards the 4-5m high bluffs. A USGS research team rigged a camera on top of a pipe wedged into the seafloor about 5 to 6 meters offshore. The camera was set to photograph the coast several times every day between July 13th and August 22nd. The movie shows the sea forming a hollow niche at the base of the bluff. Then a large chunk of the bluff fell into the sea and was washed away within 5 days, the water continued to hollow out the niche and more chunks of land toppled off the bluff.  +
B
Barrier Islands migrate over the shelf in response to sea level changes. Here the sandy deposits that form the actual island, first prograde outward, during sea level fall and then retrograde when sea level is coming up again.  +
Bed load transportation with a moving camera frame. 50g/m/s 7.0mm d50 50g/m/s 0.20mm d50 Grain Size ratio = 35  +
A close up of bed load transportation with a still camera frame. 50g/m/s 7.0mm d50 50g/m/s 0.20mm d50 Grain Size ratio = 35  +
Bed load transport due to moving water flowing over the bedload surface from multiple angles. All scenes are slowed down. The first is a mixture of 95% sand and 5% gravel. The second is a mixture of 80% sand and 20% gravel. The third is the same mixture.  +
Bioturbation is the mixing of plant and other organic matter into soils and sediments by biotic activity. It is one of the fundamental processes in ecology, as it stimulates decomposition, creates habitats for other (micro)fauna and increases gas- and water flow through the soil. This time lapse movie shows bioturbation by 3 earthworms species: - Lumbricus terrestris (an ’anecic’ earthworm, feeding on leaves and living in deep vertical burrows; 2 individuals present) - Lumbricus rubellus (an ’epigeic’ earthworm, feeding on leaves and living in shallow, non-permanent burrows; 2 individuals present) - Aporrectodea caliginosa (an ‘endogeic’ earthworm, feeding on decomposed organic matter and living deeper in the soil; 3 individuals present). Poplar leaves were applied on top of the soil as food for the earthworms. Different soil layers were simulated by mixing a topsoil (rich in organic matter) with quartz sand in various ratios. The recording lasted 1 month. This movie was made in collaboration with scientists from the Department of Soil Quality of Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Soil screening: I.M. Lubbers & J.W. van Groenigen Marie Curie Alumni: G.B. De Deyn Microphonography: Urban Utan Time lapse photography © Wim van Egmond - 2014 With the support of the Marie Curie Alumni Association  +
This movie shows a small part of experiment XES 99-1 on braided streams. The basin in this experiment is 3 meters wide and 6 meters long. Sediment and water enter the basin from four input sites at the top of the basin. The auto cyclic events present in the movie are labeled. They include avulsion, lateral sweeping, channel expansion events, bar migration and nickpoint retreat.  +
Emplacement of the topset by braided streams in an experimental fan-delta undergoing subsidence. Most significant alluvial processes are labeled.  +
Rivers draining the West Greenland Ice Sheet are highly dynamic braided rivers. The water is of a milky color, because of the glacial flour it carries in suspension. In addition, the flow velocities are high and sound of coarse, cobble-sized bedload clashing into each other at the bed is evident. Banks and bars consist of a mix of cobbles, pebbles and fine sandy to silty material. The river is shallow.  +
C
This is a model coupling experiment where a simple block of uplifted sediments eroded by Child are pass off to SedFlux within the CMT environment.  +