This code has been community reviewed and published in the open access Journal of Open Source Software (JOSS)


Also known as Apsim
Model type Single
Model part of larger framework
Note on status model
Date note status model
Incorporated models or components:
Spatial dimensions 1D
Spatial extent Regional-Scale
Model domain Terrestrial
One-line model description The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM)
Extended model description The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) is internationally recognized as a highly advanced simulator of agricultural systems. It contains a suite of modules which enable the simulation of systems that cover a range of plant, animal, soil, climate and management interactions. APSIM is undergoing continual development, with new capability added to regular releases of official versions. Its development and maintenance is underpinned by rigorous science and software engineering standards. The APSIM Initiative has been established to promote the development and use of the science modules and infrastructure software of APSIM.

Agricultural systems,

Name Dean Holzworth
Type of contact Model developer
Institute / Organization CSIRO
Postal address 1
Postal address 2
Town / City Toowoomba
Postal code 4350
Country Australia
Email address

Supported platforms
Linux, Windows
Other platform
Programming language


Other program language Visual C#
Code optimized
Multiple processors implemented
Nr of distributed processors
Nr of shared processors
Start year development 1996
Does model development still take place? Yes
If above answer is no, provide end year model development
Code development status Active
When did you indicate the 'code development status'? 2020
Model availability As code
Source code availability
(Or provide future intension)
Through web repository
Source web address
Source csdms web address
Program license type Other
Program license type other Standard 3rd Party, Non-Commercial License Agreement
Memory requirements 2 Gb of RAM
Typical run time minutes

Describe input parameters --
Input format ASCII
Other input format
Describe output parameters --
Output format ASCII
Other output format
Pre-processing software needed? No
Describe pre-processing software
Post-processing software needed? No
Describe post-processing software
Visualization software needed? No
If above answer is yes
Other visualization software

Describe processes represented by the model A set of biophysical modules that simulate biological and physical processes in farming systems.

A set of management modules that allow the user to specify the intended management rules that characterise the scenario being simulated and that control the simulation.

Describe key physical parameters and equations --
Describe length scale and resolution constraints --
Describe time scale and resolution constraints --
Describe any numerical limitations and issues --

Describe available calibration data sets --
Upload calibration data sets if available:
Describe available test data sets --
Upload test data sets if available:
Describe ideal data for testing --

Do you have current or future plans for collaborating with other researchers?
Is there a manual available? Yes
Upload manual if available:
Model website if any
Model forum / discussion board

This part will be filled out by CSDMS staff

OpenMI compliant No but possible
BMI compliant No but possible
WMT component No but possible
PyMT component
Is this a data component
Can be coupled with:
Model info
Dean Holzworth
Nr. of publications: 1111
Total citations: 36437
h-index: 86
m-quotient: 2.39

Link to this page




Nr. of publications: 1111
Total citations: 36437
h-index: 86
m-quotient: 2.39

Featured publication(s)YearModel describedType of ReferenceCitations
Keating, B.A; Carberry, P.S; Hammer, G.L; Probert, M.E; Robertson, M.J; Holzworth, D; Huth, N.I; Hargreaves, J.N.G; Meinke, H; Hochman, Z; McLean, G; Verburg, K; Snow, V; Dimes, J.P; Silburn, M; Wang, E; Brown, S; Bristow, K.L; Asseng, S; Chapman, S; McCown, R.L; Freebairn, D.M; Smith, C.J; 2003. An overview of APSIM, a model designed for farming systems simulation. European Journal of Agronomy, 18, 267–288. 10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00108-9
(View/edit entry)
2003 ApsimX
Model overview 2314
McCown, R.L.; Hammer, G.L.; Hargreaves, J.N.G.; Holzworth, D.P.; Freebairn, D.M.; 1996. APSIM: a novel software system for model development, model testing and simulation in agricultural systems research. Agricultural Systems, 50, 255–271. 10.1016/0308-521X(94)00055-V
(View/edit entry)
1996 ApsimX
Model overview 865
Holzworth, Dean P.; Huth, Neil I.; deVoil, Peter G.; Zurcher, Eric J.; Herrmann, Neville I.; McLean, Greg; Chenu, Karine; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Snow, Val; Murphy, Chris; Moore, Andrew D.; Brown, Hamish; Whish, Jeremy P.M.; Verrall, Shaun; Fainges, Justin; Bell, Lindsay W.; Peake, Allan S.; Poulton, Perry L.; Hochman, Zvi; Thorburn, Peter J.; Gaydon, Donald S.; Dalgliesh, Neal P.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Cox, Howard; Chapman, Scott; Doherty, Alastair; Teixeira, Edmar; Sharp, Joanna; Cichota, Rogerio; Vogeler, Iris; Li, Frank Y.; Wang, Enli; Hammer, Graeme L.; Robertson, Michael J.; Dimes, John P.; Whitbread, Anthony M.; Hunt, James; van Rees, Harm; McClelland, Tim; Carberry, Peter S.; Hargreaves, John N.G.; MacLeod, Neil; McDonald, Cam; Harsdorf, Justin; Wedgwood, Sara; Keating, Brian A.; 2014. APSIM – Evolution towards a new generation of agricultural systems simulation. Environmental Modelling & Software, 62, 327–350. 10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.07.009
(View/edit entry)
2014 ApsimX
Model overview 1013
Joseph, J.E.; Akinseye, F.M.; Worou, O.N.; Faye, A.; Konte, O.; Whitbread; Rötter, R.P.; 2023. Assessment of the relations between crop yield variability and the onset and intensity of the West African Monsoon. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 333, . 10.1016/j.agrformet.2023.109431
(View/edit entry)
2023 ApsimX

Model application

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Input Files

Output Files