Also known as
Model type Tool
Model part of larger framework
Note on status model
Date note status model
Incorporated models or components:
Spatial dimensions 2D, 3D
Spatial extent Landscape-Scale, Regional-Scale, Watershed-Scale
Model domain Terrestrial, Hydrology
One-line model description TOPOG is a terrain analysis-based hydrologic modelling package
Extended model description TOPOG describes how water moves through landscapes; over the land surface, into the soil, through the soil and groundwater and back to the atmosphere via evaporation. Conservative solute movement and sediment transport are also simulated.

The primary strength of TOPOG is that it is based on a sophisticated digital terrain analysis model, which accurately describes the topographic attributes of three-dimensional landscapes. It is intended for application to small catchments (up to 10 km2, and generally smaller than 1 km2).

We refer to TOPOG as a "deterministic", "distributed-parameter" hydrologic modelling package. The term "deterministic" is used to emphasise the fact that the various water balance models within TOPOG use physical reasoning to explain how the hydrologic system behaves. The term "distributed-parameter" means that the model can account for spatial variability inherent in input parameters such as soil type, vegetation and climate.


landscape, catchment,

Name Richard Silberstein
Type of contact Model developer
Institute / Organization University of Western Australia
Postal address 1 35 Stirling Hwy
Postal address 2
Town / City Nedlands
Postal code 6009
Country Australia
Email address
Phone +61 400666334

Name Joel Rahman
Type of contact Model developer
Institute / Organization Flow Matters
Postal address 1 PO Box 272
Postal address 2 Jamison Centre
Town / City Canberra
Postal code 2614
Country Australia
Email address

Supported platforms
Other platform
Programming language

Fortran77, C

Other program language
Code optimized Single Processor
Multiple processors implemented
Nr of distributed processors
Nr of shared processors
Start year development 1987
Does model development still take place? Yes
If above answer is no, provide end year model development
Code development status Only maintenance
When did you indicate the 'code development status'? 2020
Model availability As code
Source code availability
(Or provide future intension)
Through web repository
Source web address
Source csdms web address
Program license type Other
Program license type other PRODUCT LICENSE AGREEMENT, see website
Memory requirements at least 32 MB core memory, preferably 64 MB
Typical run time --

Describe input parameters See website, too many to describe:

Input format ASCII, Binary
Other input format
Describe output parameters --
Output format ASCII, Binary
Other output format
Pre-processing software needed? No
Describe pre-processing software
Post-processing software needed? No
Describe post-processing software
Visualization software needed? No
If above answer is yes
Other visualization software

Describe processes represented by the model See website, too many to describe:

Describe key physical parameters and equations See website, too many to describe:

Describe length scale and resolution constraints It is intended for application to small catchments (up to 10 km2, and generally smaller than 1 km2).
Describe time scale and resolution constraints --
Describe any numerical limitations and issues --

Describe available calibration data sets
Upload calibration data sets if available:
Describe available test data sets
Upload test data sets if available:
Describe ideal data for testing

Do you have current or future plans for collaborating with other researchers? --
Is there a manual available? Yes
Upload manual if available:
Model website if any
Model forum / discussion board Feed back and bugs can be reported through the website
Comments This questionnaire is filled out by Albert Kettner, based on the TOPOG website

This part will be filled out by CSDMS staff

OpenMI compliant No but possible
BMI compliant No but possible
WMT component No but possible
PyMT component
Is this a data component
Can be coupled with:
Model info
Richard Silberstein
Nr. of publications: 10
Total citations: 963
h-index: 5
m-quotient: 0.13
Qrcode TOPOG.png
Link to this page




Nr. of publications: 10
Total citations: 963
h-index: 5
m-quotient: 0.13

Featured publication(s)YearModel describedType of ReferenceCitations
O'Loughlin, E. M.; 1986. Prediction of Surface Saturation Zones in Natural Catchments by Topographic Analysis. Water Resources Research, 22, 794–804. 10.1029/WR022i005p00794
(View/edit entry)
1986 TOPOG
Model overview 714
Vertessy, R.A.; Hatton, T.J.; O'Shaughnessy, P.J.; Jayasuriya, M.D.A.; 1993. Predicting water yield from a mountain ash forest catchment using a terrain analysis based catchment model. Journal of Hydrology, 150, 665–700. 10.1016/0022-1694(93)90131-R
(View/edit entry)
1993 TOPOG
Model overview 186
See more publications of TOPOG



Input Files

Output Files