Also known as
Model type Modular
Model part of larger framework
Note on status model
Date note status model
Incorporated models or components:


Spatial dimensions 3D
Spatial extent Watershed-Scale
Model domain Hydrology, Terrestrial
One-line model description Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW model
Extended model description GSFLOW was a coupled model based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS, Leavesley and others, 1983) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Groundwater Flow Model(MODFLOW-2005, Harbaugh, 2005). It was developed to simulate coupled groundwater/surface-water flow in one or more watersheds by simultaneously simulating flow across the land surface, within subsurface saturated and unsaturated materials, and within streams and lakes.

Hydrological model, basin,

Name Steve Markstrom
Type of contact Model developer
Institute / Organization USGS
Postal address 1 U.S.Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center
Postal address 2 Box 25046, MS 412
Town / City Lakewood
Postal code 80225
State Colorado
Country United States
Email address
Phone (303)236-3330
Fax (303)236-5034

Supported platforms
Linux, Windows
Other platform
Programming language

Fortran90, C

Other program language
Code optimized Single Processor
Multiple processors implemented
Nr of distributed processors
Nr of shared processors
Start year development 2008
Does model development still take place? Yes
If above answer is no, provide end year model development
Code development status
When did you indicate the 'code development status'?
Model availability As code
Source code availability
(Or provide future intension)
Through web repository
Source web address
Source csdms web address
Program license type Other
Program license type other
Memory requirements
Typical run time

Describe input parameters PRMS: MODFLOW

Input format
Other input format
Describe output parameters PRMS: MODFLOW

Output format
Other output format
Pre-processing software needed? No
Describe pre-processing software
Post-processing software needed? No
Describe post-processing software
Visualization software needed? No
If above answer is yes
Other visualization software

Describe processes represented by the model GSFLOW simulates flow within and among three regions. The first region is bounded on top by the plant canopy and on the bottom by the lower limit of the soil zone; the second region consists of all streams and lakes; and the third region is the subsurface zone beneath the soil zone. PRMS is used to simulate hydrologic responses in the first region and MODFLOW-2005 is used to simulate hydrologic processes in the second and third regions.
Describe key physical parameters and equations
Describe length scale and resolution constraints
Describe time scale and resolution constraints
Describe any numerical limitations and issues

Describe available calibration data sets
Upload calibration data sets if available:
Describe available test data sets
Upload test data sets if available:
Describe ideal data for testing

Do you have current or future plans for collaborating with other researchers?
Is there a manual available? No
Upload manual if available:
Model website if any
Model forum / discussion board

This part will be filled out by CSDMS staff

OpenMI compliant No but possible
BMI compliant No but possible
WMT component No but possible
PyMT component
Is this a data component
Can be coupled with:
Model info
Steve Markstrom
Nr. of publications: 25
Total citations: 895
h-index: 10
m-quotient: 0.53

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Nr. of publications: 25
Total citations: 895
h-index: 10
m-quotient: 0.53

Featured publication(s)YearModel describedType of ReferenceCitations
Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.; 2005. GSFLOW-Coupled Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW model based on the integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005). .
(View/edit entry)

Model overview

See more publications of GSFLOW



Input Files

Output Files