CSN Process Names


  CSDMS Standard Names — Process Names

  • CSDMS Standard Names require an "object" part and a "quantity" part. Sometimes the quantity part contains a process name as a modifier to a base quantity, as in "snow_melt_rate", where the process is "melting". The process is an action that applies to the object in the object part of the name. This quantity name pattern is very common and we call it the Process_name + Quantity Pattern. Click the link for a long list of examples.
  • Process names are typically nouns derived from verbs, usually ending with:
"tion" (absorption, convection, radiation),
"sion" (conversion, dispersion, submersion),
"ing"  (melting, swimming, upwelling),
"age"  (drainage, seepage, storage),
"y"    (discovery, recovery, reentry),
"ance" (acceptance, disturbance, maintenance),
"ment" (alignment, improvement, recruitment),
"al"   (arrival, disposal, removal, retrieval) and
"sis"  (osmosis, metamorphosis, dialysis, paralysis).
  • The "ing" ending is often dropped, as in:
birth, boil, burn, creep, flow, icefall, inflow, lapse, launch, melt,
outflow, rainfall, rest, shear, snowfall, start, stop, throughfall and tilt.
  • "Rainfall" is a somewhat unusual example in that the relevant object (rain) and the associated process (falling) have been fused to create the process name. Adding the object part in front would mean repeating the word rain. But "rain" is also a verb and "raining" is therefore a valid process name, but only for liquid water. The CSDMS Standard Names avoid this issue by using the process name "precipitation" instead of "rainfall" or "raining" and then specifying the object that is precipitating, such as "water" or perhaps "methane" for Titan. Since water can precipitate in liquid or solid form, each with a different density, precipitation rates are often quantified as "liquid water equivalent". The corresponding CSDMS standard name is: "atmosphere_water__liquid_equivalent_precipitation_rate", which generalizes to other substances (like methane on Titan). We similarly have "snowpack__liquid_equivalent_depth". See: Precipitation (chemistry) and Precipitation (meteorology).
  • "Sunrise" and "sunset" have all of the same issues as "rainfall". Note that "sun" can be used as both a noun and a verb and "sunning" can therefore be a process name. "Rise" is short for "rising" and "set" is short for "setting". A "rising_time" and "setting_time" can be defined for any celestial body and for any observing point on Earth.
  • Process names can almost always be paired with "_rate" in order to quantify how fast the process/action occurs, and this then creates a quantity name. The word "rate" usually indicates "per unit time". However, there may be other variable names associated with the process that do not contain the process name.
  • Some process names may be naturally paired with an ending other than (or in addition to) "_rate", such as
  • Cracking is one example of a process name that is used with a different meaning depending on the object, which therefore highlights the importance of the object part of CSDMS Standard Names. For example:
corn cracking
ice cracking
joke cracking
molecule cracking  (chemistry)
nut cracking
password cracking
safe cracking
whip cracking
  • Note that "equinox" and "solstice" are included in this list of process names, even though we don't associate them with verbs and think of them as phenomena or events. The word "solstice" comes from the Latin for "sun standing" or "sun stoppage". The word "equinox" comes from the Latin for "equal night", since then day and night are about the same length. Note that most other astronomical events such as "eclipse", "conjunction" and "occultation" do have associated verbs (eclipse, conjoin, occult). Sunrise and sunset are discussed above. With this convention, "vernal_equinox_time" and "summer_solstice_time" conform to the Process_name + Quantity Pattern.
  • Note that a "tion" ending creates a noun while a "tive" ending creates an advective. Common examples are:
conduction   vs. conductive
convection   vs. convective
radiation    vs. radiative
reproduction vs. reproductive
  • Some words are created by combining two processes, with the first in adjective form, as in: "radiative_transfer" and "convective_transport".
  • Note that "friction" is not included in this list of process names. It is really a force rather than a process and doesn't fit the verb-to-noun pattern. The adjective "frictional" is used in terms like "frictional_momentum_loss_rate" (related to shear_stress); i.e. the frictional force causes momentum loss. A Google search indicates that "friction_rate" is sometimes used in connection with air ducts. The word "traction" has similar issues.
  • There are many process names that fit the "verb-to-noun" pattern but that aren't typically used in the sciences. Many examples can be found in economics, manufacturing and horticulture, for example. Several of these have been collected in a separate document: CSDMS_Standard_Name_Processes_Extra.txt.
  • The alphabetical list of process names listed below continues to grow. It contained 1130 process names as of March 28, 2014. Each process name is followed by the associated verb, in parentheses.


abandonment (abandon)
abatement (abate)
aberration (aberate)
ablation (ablate)
abrasion (abrade)
absorption (absorb)
abstraction (abstract)   (synonym for extraction of water)
acceleration (accelerate, accelerating)
acceptance (accept)
acclimatization (acclimatize)   (called "acclimation" in the UK)
accommodation (accommodate)   (e.g. accomodation_space, accommodation_depth)
accretion (accrete)  (in CF)
accumulation (accumulate)   (in CF)
acidification (acidify)
acquisition (acquire)
action (act)
activation (activate)    (e.g. activation_energy)
actuation (actuate)      (e.g. actuation_rate)
adaptation (adapt)
addition (add)   (see division, multiplication, subtraction)
adhesion (adhere)
adjustment (adjust)
adoption (adopt)
adsorption (adsorb)   (see absorption, desorption, sorption)
advection  (advect)
aeration (aerate)
aerologation (aerologate)
aging (age)
aggradation (aggrade)   (see "progradation")
aggregation (aggregate)   (e.g. diffusion-limited aggregation or DLA)
airflow (airflow)
aliasing (alias)    (also "anti-aliasing)
alignment (align)            (e.g. of planets)
alkylation (alkylate)
alleviation (alleviate)
allocation (allocate)  (e.g. of surface water)
allografting (allograft)
allotment (allot)
allotransplantation (allotransplant)
alluviation (alluviate)
alteration (alter)
alternating (alternate)
ammonification (ammonify)
amortization (amortize)
amplification (amplify)
amputation (amputate)
anagenesis (in geology)
anchoring (anchor)
aneurysm #### (e.g. tectonic type)
animation (animate)          (e.g. suspended animation)
annealing (anneal)
annexation (annex)
annihilation (annihilate)    (e.g. matter and antimatter)
antibiosis (verb form ??)
apoptosis  ####
application (apply)  (e.g. sunscreen)
approach (approach, approaching)
appulse (appulse)    (e.g. in astronomy)
aridification (aridify)
armoring (armor)             (e.g. stream bed armoring)
arresting (arrest)           (e.g. arrested development)
arrival (arrive)
ascension (ascend)    (e.g. in astronomy)
ascent (ascend)   (e.g. ascent_angle)
aspiration (aspire)  (medical term, e.g. pulmonary aspiration)
assembling (assemble)
assessment (assess)
assimilation (assimilate)    (e.g. protein assimilation rate)
assistance (assist)
atomization (atomize)
attachment (attach, attaching)    (see detachment)
attack (attack, attacking)   (e.g. in medical context, also attack angle of airfoil)
attainment (attain)
attenuation (attenuate)
attraction (attract)         (e.g. planets and atoms)
augmentation (augment)
austempering (austemper)        (hardening process for metals)
austenitization (austenitize)   (heating process for metals)
autocollimation (autocollimate)
autoconversion (autoconvert)  (in CF)
autografting (autograft)
autolysis (autolyze, autolyzing)   (e.g. of bread dough or wine)
autopsy ###
avalanching (avalanche)   (e.g. avalanching rate)
averaging (average)
aversion (avert)     (e.g. risk_aversion)
avoidance (avoid)    (e.g. zone of avoidance in astronomy)
avulsion (avulse)


backcrossing (backcross)   (e.g. in genetics)
backfire (backfire)
backflow (backflow)
backlash (backlash, backlashing)
backscattering (backscatter)   (preferred to: backwards_scattering ??)
backspin (backspin, backspinning)
balancing (balance)
baling (bale)   (process of making hay bales)
ballasting (ballast)
baseflow (baseflow)
basification (basify)
beaming (beam)
bearing (bear)   (e.g. load bearing capacity)
belaying (belay)
bending (bend)
berthing (berth)
bifurcation (bifurcate)
bilateration (bilaterate)
binding (bind)
binning (bin)
bioaccumulation (bioaccumulate)
bioconcentration (bioconcentrate)
biodegradation (biodegrade)   (see degradation)
biogenesis (biogenerate ?)
bioluminescence (bioluminesce ??)  (see fluorescence)
biomagnification (biomagnify)
biopoiesis (??)  (also called abiogenesis)
bioremediation (bioremediate)
biosynthesis (biosynthesize)
bioturbation (bioturbate  ??)
birth (birth, birthing)  (more an event than a process?)
bisection (bisect)
blackout  (blackout)  (from "blacking out")
blasting (blast)    (e.g. abrasive blasting) 
bleaching (bleach)  (e.g. coral bleaching)
bleeding (bleed)  (e.g. bleeding a brake line)
blistering (blister)
blockage (block)
blocking (block)
blossoming (blossom)
blowing (blow)      (e.g. blowing snow)
blowoff (blowoff)  (from blowing off,  e.g. blowoff valve, also combustion physics)
blowout (blowout)   (from "blowing out";  e.g. of a car tire, oil well, etc.)
boiling (boil)
bombardment (bombard)   (e.g. elementary particles, cratering)
bonding (bond)
boring (bore)       (drilling)
borrowing (borrow)
bounce (bounce, bouncing)   (e.g. bounce_angle)
bracing (brace)
braiding (braid)
braking (brake)   (e.g. braking_distance)
branching (branch)   (e.g. branching_ratio)
breaching (breach)   (e.g. breaching_height of a levee)
breakdown (from breaking down)
breaking (break)     (e.g. breaking_point)
breakover (breakover)    (e.g. breakover angle of a vehicle)
breakthrough (breakthrough)    (from "breaking through")
breakup (breakup)    (e.g. drops and bubbles, ice breakup)
breastfeeding (breastfeed)
breathing (breathe)    (there is a power law for breathing rate vs. body mass)
breeding (breed)  (e.g. breeding_time, breeding_duration)
brewing (brew)
bridging (bridge)
brinelling (brinell)
broadcasting (broadcast)
bromination (brominate)
brumation (brumate)   (similar to hibernation, for reptiles)
bubbling (bubble)    (e.g. bubbling_pressure_head)
buckling (buckle)   (e.g. support columns)
budding (bud)
buffering (buffer)
buffeting (buffet)     (e.g. in aerodynamics)
buildup (buildup)
bulging (bulge)
bundling (bundle)
buoyancy (buoy, buoyance)   (e.g. larvae_buoyancy_rate;  see sinking)
burial (bury, burying)
burning (burn)
burrowing (burrow)
bursting (burst)
bypass (bypass, bypassing)


cabbeling (cabbel)
caching (cache)
calcification (calcify)
calibration (calibrate, calibrating)
calving (calve)
camouflaging (camouflage)
canalization (canalize)
cancellation (cancel)   (e.g. noise cancellation)
cannulation (cannulate)
capping (cap)    (e.g. capping a well;   see white-capping waves)
capturing (capture)
carbonation (carbonate)
carpooling (carpool)
carrying (carry)   (e.g. carrying capacity)
carving (carve)      (glaciers "carve" valleys)
cascading (cascade)
casting (cast)
catalysis (catalyze)
catalyzing (catalyze)
catching (catch)
cauterization (cauterize)
cavitation (cavitate)
cementation (cement)
cementing (cement)
centering (center)
centralization (centralize)
centrifugation (centrifuge)
centrifuging (centrifuge)
cessation (cease)
chafing (chafe)    (a medical and nautical term)
chambering (chamber)    (in firearms and martial arts)
channelization (channelize)
charging (charge)   (e.g. an electric vehicle)
chelation (chelate)
chemigation (chemigate)
chemosynthesis (chemosynthesize)
chewing (chew)
chipping (chip)
chirp (chirp, chirp)  (e.g. chirp_frequency)
chiseling (chisel)
chlorination (chlorinate)
choking (choke)
churning (churn)
circling (circle)
circulation (circulate)
circumnavigation (circumnavigate)
cirrhosis  (a disease of the liver)
clamping (clamp)
cleaning (clean)
clearance (clear)    (e.g. vehicle clearance, also in genetics)
clearcutting (clearcut)
clearing (clear)
cleavage (cleave)
climbing (climb)  (e.g. aircraft climb_angle)
clogging (clog)
cloning (clone)
closing (close)
closure (close)   (e.g. turbulence closure)
clotting (clot)
clumping (clump)
clustering (cluster)
coagulation (coagulate, coagulating)
coalescence (coalesce)    (droplets: coalescence_rate vs. rupturing_rate)
coating (coat)  (e.g. optical coating)
coercion (coerce)
coexistence (coexist)
cognition (???)
cohesion (cohere)
coiling (coil)
coincidence (coincide)
collapse (collapse, collapsing)
collection (collect)
collimation (collimate)   (e.g. of laser light)
collision (collide)       (e.g. atomic and subatomic particles)
colonization (colonize)
combination (combine, combining)
combustion (combust)
comminution (comminute)
compactification (compactify)     (e.g in string theory)
compaction (compact)
compensation (compensate)  (e.g. Heisenberg compensator)
competition (compete)   (e.g. species)
completion (complete)
complexation (complexate)   (chemistry)
compounding (compound)
compensation (compensate, compensating)  (e.g. frequency_compensation in EE)
compounding (compound)
compression (compress)   (e.g. compression_ratio)
concealment (conceal, concealing)
conception (conceive)
conching (conch)   (when making chocolate, with a "conche")
concussion (concuss)
condensation  (condense)
conditioning (condition)
conduction (conduct)
confining (confine)  (e.g. confining_pressure)
confinement (confine)  (e.g. atoms, fusion)
conflation (conflate)
confusion (confuse)
congelation (congeal ??)  (in CF)  (e.g. at the bed of a glacier)
congestion (congest)
conjugation (conjugate)   (e.g. bacterial conjugation)
conjunction (conjoin)   (in astronomy)
connection (connect)
conservation (conserve)
conserving (conserve)    (e.g. mass-conserving system)
consolidation (consolidate)   (e.g. in soils; see compaction)
constraining (constrain)
consumption  (consume)   (e.g. fuel_consumption)
contact (contact, contacting)   (e.g. contact_area)
containment (contain)    (e.g. "containment field")
contamination (contaminate)
contraception (contracept)   (from conceive/conception)
contraction (contract)    (see expansion)
contributing (contribute, contribution)    (e.g. total contributing area)
control (control, controlling)
contusion (contuse)
convection (convect, convecting, convective)
convergence (converge)
conversion (convert)
conveyance (convey)   (diversion of water)
convolution (convolute)
convulsion (convulse)
cooking (cook)
cooling (cool)
cooperation (cooperate)  (animal behavior)
coordination (coordinate)
coping (cope)  (e.g. coping mechanism)
coppicing (coppice)
copying (copy)    (e.g. DNA and RNA;  see replication)
coring (core)     (e.g. ice and sediment cores)
cornering (corner)  (e.g. of racecars)
corrasion (corrade)
correction (correct)  (e.g. course correction, also an operation)
correlation (correlate)    (e.g. correlation_coefficient)
corrosion (corrode, corroding)
coupling (couple)
courting (court, courtship)  (animal behavior)
coverage (cover)      (e.g. coverage processes)
covering (cover)
cracking (crack)
cranking (crank)
crash (crash, crashing)
cratering (crater)    (see pitting, impact)
creation (create)  (e.g. job_creation, in economics)
creep  (creep, creeping)
creepage (creep)   (e.g. creepage length)
cresting (crest)
crevassing (crevasse)
crimping (crimp)
crossbreeding (crossbreed)
crossing (cross)
crosslinking (crosslink)
crossover (crossover)   (e.g. chromosomal crossover process)
crushing (crush)
cryoplanation (cryoplanate or cryoplane?)
cryopreservation (cryopreserve)
cryosuction (cryosuck ?)
cryoturbation (cryoturbate)
crystallization (crystallize)
culling (cull)
culmination (culminate)    (e.g. culmination time)
cultivation (cultivate)
culturing (culture)
curation (curation)
cure (curing, e.g. disease cure rate)
curettage (curette)
curing (cure)  (e.g. curing meat)
curtailment (curtail)
curving (curve, curvature)
cushioning (cushion)
cutting (cut)   (e.g. cutting_angle)
cutoff (cutoff)  (e.g. cutoff_frequency)
cycling (cycle)   (e.g. carbon cycling)


damage (damage, damaging)
damming (dam)    (see impounding)
dampening (dampen)
damping (damp)
darkening (darken)   (e.g. hydrogen darkening of glass)
dating (date)
deactivation (deactivate)
dealkalization (dealkalize)
death (death, mortality)
deburring (deburr)
decantation (decant, decanting)   (i.e. separation of mixtures)
decay (decay, decaying)   (e.g. decay_rate, exponential_decay)
deceleration (decelerate)
decentralization (decentralize)
deception (deceive)
decimation (decimate)
decision (decide)
declination (decline)
decollimation (decollimate)
decomposition (decompose)
decompression (decompress)
defenestration (defenestrate)
defense (defend, defending)
defertilisation (defertilise)
defervescence (defervesce)
defibrillation (defibrillate)
deflation (deflate)   (e.g. balloons, glaciers, geomorphology)
deflection (deflect)
defoliation (defoliate)
deforestation (deforest)
deformation (deform)    (e.g. crustal deformation)
deglaciation (deglaciate)
degradation (degrade)     (e.g. soil degradation; see biodegradation)
dehalogenation (dehalogenate)
dehydration (dehydrate)   (see hydration, desiccation)
deionization (deionize)   (see ionization)
delamination (delaminate)
delay (delay, delaying)   (e.g. delay_factor)
deliberation (deliberate)
delineation (delineate)
delivery (deliver)     (e.g. with drugs, or giving birth)
demand (demand, demanding)
demarcation (demarcate)
demolition (demolish)
denaturation (denature)   (e.g. of proteins)
denitrification (denitrify)  (in CF)
denoising (denoise)
densification (densify)
denudation (denude)
departure (depart)
dependence (depend)
dephosphorylation (dephosphorylate)
depletion (deplete)      (e.g. of ground water, fossil fuel or oxygen/hypoxia)
deployment (deploy)
deposition (deposit)
depression (depress)
deprivation (deprive)
deprotonation (deprotonate)
derailment (derail)
dereferencing (dereference)
desalination (desalinate;  also desalinize, desalinization)
descension (descend, descending)
descent (descend)   (e.g. descent_angle)
desertification (desertify)
desorption (desorb)
desiccation (desiccate)
destruction (destruct or destroy)
detachment (detach)      (e.g. detachment_limited;  see attachment)
detection (detect)
detention (detain)
deterioration (deteriorate)
deterrence (deter, deterring)
detonation (detonate)
detoxification (detoxify)
detrainment (detrain)   (in CF;  see entrainment)
development (develop)  (or an organism)
deviation (deviate)     (e.g. deviation_angle from a set course;  also standard deviation)
dew  (dew, dewing)      (e.g. dew_point;  "dewing" is OK but seldom used; see melt/melting)
dewatering (dewater)
dialysis (dialyze)
differentiation (differentiate)
diffraction (diffract)    (see refraction)
diffusion  (diffuse)
digestion (digest)
digging (dig)
dilatation (dilatate)
dilation (dilate)
dilution (dilute)
dimming (dim)   (e.g. "global dimming")
dipping (dip)
direction (direct)
disappearance (disappear)   (e.g. of a species)
disassembling (disassemble)
discharge  (discharge, discharging)   (discharge_coefficient, discharge rate of a capacitor)
disconnection (disconnect)
discovery (discover)
disentrainment (disentrain)  (e.g. of sediment;  see detrainment)
disgregation (disgregate)   (See: Disgregation.)
disintegration (disintegrate)
dislocation (dislocate)   (e.g. dislocation_density, dislocation_length in materials science)
dismantling (dismantle)
dispersal (disperse)
dispersion (disperse)
displacement (displace)    (also used as a quantity with units of length)
disposal (dispose)
disposing (dispose)
disruption (disrupt)
dissection (dissect)
dissipation (dissipate)  (in CF)
dissociation (dissociate)   (e.g. bond_dissociation_energy)
dissolution (dissolve)
distillation (distill)
distortion (distort)
distraction (distract)
distribution (distribute)
disturbance (disturb)   (e.g. disturbance_frequency, fires)
divergence (diverge)
diversion (divert)      (e.g. of flows)
diving (dive)
division (divide)       (cell_division_rate)
docking (dock)
dodging (dodge)
dolomitization (dolomotize)
domination (dominate)
donation (donate)   (e.g. electron donation, organ donation)
dosing (dose)
doubling (double)
downburst (downburst, downbursting)   (e.g. microburst, macroburst)
downcutting (downcut)
downdraft (downdraft, downdrafting)   (see updraft)
downscaling (downscale)
downforce (downforce, down forcing)   (e.g. of spoilers, opposite of lift)
downscaling (downscale)
downturn (downturn, downturning)
downwelling  (but "downwell" is not a word)
drafting (draft)  (e.g. bicycle drafting, also swimming, trucks, etc.)
drag (drag, dragging)    (in aerodynamics;  see lift, thrust)
drainage  (drain, draining)   (e.g. acid mine drainage, drainage_area)
drawdown (drawdown)   (from "drawing down")
dredging (dredge)
drifting (drift)    (e.g. snow_drifting, particle_drifting, car_drifting, drift_velocity)
drilling (drill)   (e.g. drill_rate)
dripping (drip)   (e.g. in irrigation)
driving (drive)    (e.g. driving_force;  see forcing)
drought  #############
drowning (drown)   (also for plants)
drying (dry)
ducting (duct)   (e.g. tropospheric ducting)
duplication (duplicate)   (e.g. DNA, gene duplication)
dying (die)  (see death)
dysregulation (dysregulate)


ebb (ebb, ebbing)  (movement of tide back toward the sea)
echoing (echo)
eclipsing (eclipse)
egress (egress)     (e.g. signal egress, or leakage in cables; see ingress)
ejection (eject)    (e.g. coronal mass ejection)
electrification (electrify)
electrocution (electrocute)
electrodeposition (electrodeposit)
electroplating (electroplate)
electrorefining (electrorefine)
electrowinning (electrowin)
elimination (eliminate)
elongation (elongate)
elution (elute)
eluviation (eluviate)
emanation (emanate)
embalming (embalm)
embarcation (embark)
embedding (embed)
embrittlement (embrittle)
emergence (emerge)
emigration (emigrate)
emission (emit)               (e.g. particle emission)
emplacement (emplace)   (e.g. pluton emplacement in geology)
emulsification (emulsify)
encapsulation (encapsulate)
encasement (encase, encasing)  (e.g. glass or resin encasement)
encroachment (encroach)
enforcement (enforce)
engaging (engage)
engraving (engrave)
enrichment (enrich)   (e.g of uranium)
enrobing (enrobe)  (the process of coating fillings, etc. with chocolate)
ensilage (silage, silaging)   (process of making silage)
entanglement (entangle)    (e.g. quantum entanglement)
entrainment (entrain)
entrance (enter)         (e.g. entrance_speed)
entry (enter)
equalization (equalize)     (e.g. equalization_pressure)
equilibration (equilibrate)
equinox (equinox, "equinoxing")    (e.g. equinox_time; as something the earth is doing)
eradication (eradicate)
erosion (erode)
eruption (erupt)   (e.g. of volcanoes or teeth)
escape (escape, escaping)     (e.g earth_escape_speed)
espionage   (from spying)
escalation (escalate)
establishment  (e.g. zone of flow establishment)
esterification (esterificate)
estimation (estimate)
estivation (estivate)   (similar to hibernation)
etching (etch)
ethylation (ethylate)
eutrophication (eutrophicate)
evacuation (evacuate)
evaluation (evaluate)
evaporation (evaporate)
evapotranspiration (evapotranspirate)
evasion (evade)
evection (evect ??)   (a regular perturbation of moon's orbital eccentricity due to the sun)
evolution (evolve)
examination (examine)
excavation (excavate)
exceedance (exceed)
exchange (exchange, exchanging)      (e.g. bulk_exchange_coefficient)
excitation (excite)     (see inhibition)
exclusion (exclude)
excretion (excrete)
excursion (excurse)   (e.g. brownian excursion process)
exertion (exert)
exfiltration (exfiltrate)     (opposite of infiltrate)
exfoliation (exfoliate)
exhalation (exhale)
exhaust  (exhaust, exhausting)   (e.g. from an automobile)
exhaustion (exhaust)
exhumation (exhume)   (e.g. exhumation_rate in geology)
existence (exist, existing)
exit (exit, exiting)    (e.g. rocket_nozzle_exit_speed)
expansion (expand)      (see contraction)
expiration (expire)
exploitation (exploit)
explosion (explode)     (see implosion)
exporting (export)  ??  (see import)
exposure (expose)   (e.g. exposure_duration)
expression (express)   (e.g. in genetics)
expulsion (expel)
exsanguination (exsanguinate)     (the process of blood loss)
extension (extend)
extermination (exterminate)
exteroception (??)
extinction (extinct)  (extinct is also a verb, from "extinguish")
extinguishment (extinguish)
extraction (extract)    (e.g. of water;  see abstraction)
extrapolation (extrapolate)
extravasation (extravasate)   (e.g. lava from a volcano)
extrusion (extrude)
exudation (exude)


fabrication (fabricate)
fading (fade)
faceting (facet)
failure (fail, failing)
falling (fall)
fallout (fallout)
fasciculation (fasciculate)
fastening (fasten)
fasting (fast)
faulting (fault)    (e.g. detachment_faulting, thrust_faulting)
fecundation (fecundate)
feedback (feedback, "feeding back")
feeding (feed)
fermentation (ferment)
fertigation (fertigate)
fertilization (fertilize, fertilizing)
fibrillation (fibrillate)
filamentation (filament)  (e.g. in bacterial growth)
filling (fill)
filtering (filter)
filtration (filtrate)
finding (find)    (e.g. root finding)
fingering (finger)  (e.g. viscous fingering)
fining (fine)   (e.g. downstream fining of grain size)
firing (fire)          (neuron_firing_rate)
fission (fission)     (e.g. nuclear_fission, cell_fission; verb and noun)
fixation (fixate)   (in CF, e.g. nitrogen fixation)
fixing (fix)
flagellation (flagellate)
flameholding (flamehold)  (in combustion physics)
flashback (flashback)  (in combustion physics)
flashing (flash)
flattening (flatten)      (e.g. ellipsoid flattening ratio)
flavoring (flavor)
flexure (flex)
flickering (flicker)
flight (fly, flying)    (e.g. flight_duration)
flipping (flip)
floating (float)
flocculation (flocculate)
flood (flood, flooding)
flotation (float)
flow (flow, flowing)   (e.g. sea_water_flow_speed)
fluctuation (fluctuate)
fluorescence (fluoresce)   (see bioluminescence)
fluorination (fluorinate)
flushing (flush)
flutter (flutter, fluttering)    (see: Flutter.)
flying (fly)  (e.g. flying_time)
focusing (focus)
folding (fold)     (e.g. protein_folding and in geology)
following (follow)   (e.g. terrain following coordinates)
foraging (forage)  (e.g. foraging_area, foraging_distance)
forcing (force)
forging (forge)
formation  (form)
fortification (fortify)
fouling (foul)
fractionization (fractionize)
fracturing (fracture)   (e.g. hydraulic_fracturing or "hydrofracking")
fragmentation (fragment)
freezing   (freeze)
freshening (freshen)  (of salt water)
friction   ####  (doesn't satisfy our definition;  both a force and a process?)
fumigation (fumigate)
fusion (fuse)


gaining  (gain)
galling (gall)  (e.g. thread galling)
gathering (gather)
gating (gate)
gelation (gelate)
gelifluction (gelifluct ?)
generation (generate, generating)
genesis (generate ?)
germination (germinate)   (e.g. germination_period)
glaciation (glaciate)   (also used in cloud physics)
glancing (glance)  (e.g. glancing_angle)
glide (glide, gliding)   (e.g. glide_distance, glide_height, glide_ratio)
globalization (globalize)
glowing (glow)    (see illumination, phosphorescence, fluorescence)
governing (govern)    (e.g. governing equations)
grading (grade)   (e.g. grading a road)
grafting (graft)
gravitation (gravitate)
grazing (graze)   (and overgrazing)
gridding (grid)
grinding (grind)
grip (grip, gripping)
grounding (ground)
growing  (grow)    (e.g. growing_season)
growth  (grow)   (e.g. population_mean_growth_rate)
guidance (guide)   (e.g. missile guidance system)
guiding (guide)
guttation (guttate)
gyration (gyrate)  (e.g. gyration_rate of a gyre)


habitation (inhabit, inhabiting)
hadronization (hadronize)   (forming hadrons out of quarks and gluons)
halogenation (halogenate)
hardening (harden)    (see softening)
harvest (harvest, harvesting)
heating (heat)
heaving (heave)   (e.g. frost_heaving, e.g. a type of boat movement)
herding (herd)
hesitation (hesitate)
heterosis (??)
hibernation (hibernate)
hiding (hiding)   (e.g. hiding factor ??)
hitting (hit)     (e.g. hit_rate ??)
hoarding (hoard)  (e.g. animal behavior)
hoisting (hoist)
hop (hop, hopping)  (e.g. hop_length)
hovering (hover)
humidification (humidify)
hunting (hunt)
hybridization (hybridize)
hydration (hydrate)
hydrogenation (hydrogenate)
hydrolysis (hydrolyze)
hydropeaking (hydropeak)
hydroplaning (hydroplane)  (also called aquaplaning)
hyperpolarization (hyperpolarize)


icefall  (icefall, "icefalling")   (see rainfall, snowfall)
icing (ice, like "ice up")
icepush (icepush, "icepushing")  ###### ????  (see ridging)
identification (identify)
idling (idle)
ignition (ignite)
illumination (illuminate)
illuviation (illuviate)
imbrication (imbricate)  (in geology)
immersion (immerse)
immigration (immigrate)   (see emigration)
immobilization (immobilize)
immunization (immunize)
impact (impact, impaction)    (e.g. crater_formation)
impairment (impair)   (e.g. of the environment or water supply)
impedance (impede)
impelling (impel)
impinging (impinge)
implantation (implant)
implosion (implode)
importing (import)  ??  (see export)
impounding (impound)    (damming;  Note: impoundment refers to the reservoir ??)
impregnation (impregnate)
improvement (improve)
incarceration (incarcerate)
inception (incept)
incineration (incinerate)
incision (incise)
inclination (incline)
inclusion (include)
incorporation (incorporate)   (i.e. making a part of)
incubation (incubate)    (e.g. incubation_period)
incursion (incurse ??)
indentation (indent)    (e.g. indentation_hardness)
independence (??)
indication (indicate)
induction (induce)       (e.g. induction_period in chemical kinetics)
inebriation (inebriate)
infarction (infarct)  (medical)
infection (infect)
infestation (infest)
infilling (infill)   (e.g. at the beds of glaciers)
infiltration (infiltrate)
inflammation (inflame)
inflation (inflate)      (e.g. cosmic_inflation, tire inflation)
inflection (inflect)
inflicting (inflict)
inflow (inflow, inflowing)
influence (influence, influencing)
infusion (infuse)
ingestion (ingest)
ingress (ingress)        (e.g. signal ingress, or leakage into cables; see egress)
inhalation (inhale)
inheritance (inherit)    (in genetics)
inhibition (inhibit)     (see excitation)
initialization (initialize)
injection (inject)       (injection_rate in a well)
injuring (injure, injury)
innervation (innervate)
innovation (innovate)
inoculation (inoculate)
insertion (insert)
insolation (insolate)    (at ground; "solar irradiation constant" minus losses in atmosphere)
inspection (inspect)
installation (install)
insulation (insulate)
intake (intake, intaking)
integration (integrate)
intensification (intensify)
interaction (interact)        (e.g. wave_wave_ or wave_current_interaction ??)
interbreeding (interbreed)
intercalation (intercalate)   (e.g. intercalated DNA)
interception (intercept)
interconnection (interconnect)
interdependence (interdepend)
interference (interfere)      (e.g. waves)
interflow (interflow)     (see baseflow, through flow)
interlocking (interlock)
intermingling (intermingle)
interoception (??)
interruption (interrupt)
intersection (intersect)
interspersal (intersperse)
interpolation (interpolate)
intoxication (intoxicate)
introgression (introgress)    (e.g. in genetics, also introgressive hybridization)
intrusion (intrude)           (e.g. salt water intrusion)
inundation (inundate)         (e.g. flood plain inundation)
invasion (invade)
inversion (inverse)           (e.g. atmospheric inversion, thermal inversion)
invocation (invoke)
iodination (iodinate)
ionization (ionize)      (e.g. ionization_speed)
irradiation (irradiate)       (see "insolation")
irrigation (irrigate)
irritation (irritate)
isolation (isolate)
iteration (iterate)


jacking (jack)  (e.g. jacking up a car)
jackknifing (jackknife)
jamming (jam)   (e.g. jamming a radio frequency)
jaywalking (jaywalk)
jetting (jet)  (e.g. carburetor jetting)
judder (judder, juddering)   (mostly British;  a TV image problem)
juicing (juice)
jumping (jump)
juxtaposition (juxtapose)


kinking (kink)
knocking (knock)


laceration (lacerate, lacerating)
lag (lag, lagging)      (e.g. lag_time)
lamination (laminate)
landfall (landfall)     (e.g. hurricane_landfall_rate ??)
landing (land)  (e.g. airplane landing time)
landsliding (landslide)
lapse (lapse, lapsing)  (e.g. lapse_rate of an atmospheric variable, usuaally temperature)
lashing (lash)
latching (latch)
lateration (laterate)   (also: "unilateration", "trilateration", "multilateration"; see "ranging")
launching (launch)
lautering (lauter)  (in beer brewing)
laying (lay)
leaching (leach)   (e.g. leaching into soil)
lead (lead, leading)   (e.g. lead_time for disaster warnings)
leakage (leak, leaking)
leaning (lean)
lensing (lense)  (e.g. gravitational lensing)
leveling (level)
levering (lever)
levitation (levitate)  (e.g. magnetic levitation)
libration (librate)      (See: Libration.)
lifting (lift)         (in aerodynamics;  see drag, thrust)
liftoff (liftoff)     (of rockets, from "lifting off the ground")
ligation (ligate)
limiting (limit)
lining (line)
linkage (link)
liquefaction (liquefy or liquify)
listing (list)   (e.g. of a boat)
lithification (lithificate)    (in geology)
litterfall (litterfall)   (from plants)
loading (load)           (e.g. beam_loading)
localization (localize)   (e.g sound localization, or identifying the source of a sound)
locking (lock)    (e.g. tidal locking)
locomotion (locomote)    (e.g. aquatic_locomotion, animal self movement)
logging (log)   (i.e. tree cutting)
loss (lose, losing)
lowering (lower)
lubrication (lubricate)
luminescence (luminesce)   (See: Luminescence for many kinds.)


maceration (macerate)
macgyvering (macgyver)
machining (machine)
magnetization (magnetize)
magnification (magnify)   (e.g. magnification_factor)
maintenance (maintain)
management (manage)
maneuvering (maneuver)
manufacture (manufacture, manufacturing)
mapping (map)
marching (march)
marking (mark)
martempering (martemper)  (heat treatment for steel)
masking (mask)
mastication (masticate)
matching (match)
mating (mate)  (animal behavior)
maturation (mature)
maximization (maximize)
meandering (meander)
measurement (measure, measuring)
mediation (mediate)    (e.g. semantic_mediation)
meeting (meet)
meiosis (meiosis)   (e.g. a type of cell division)
melt   (melt, melting)
mending (mend)
merging (merge)
metabolizing (metabolize, metabolization?, metabolic?)   (e.g. "basal metabolic rate", "resting metabolic rate")
metamorphosis (metamorphose, metamorphism)
methylation (methylate)
migration (migrate)     (e.g. animals or river channels)
milling (mill)
mineralization (mineralize)
minimization (minimize)
mining (mine)
missing (miss)
mitigation (mitigate)
mitosis (mitosis)
mixing (mix)     (e.g. prandtl_mixing_length)
mobilization (mobilize)
moderation (moderate)
modification (modify)
modulation (modulate)
molding (mold)  (e.g. injection molding)
monitoring (monitor)
mooring (moor)
motion (move)   (motion_rate = velocity)
movement (move, moving)  (e.g. mass movement)
mowing (mow)  (e.g. mowing_frequency and mowing_height)
multilateration (multilaterate)   (a navigation technique)
multiplication (multiply)
mutation (mutate)


navigation (navigate)
nesting (nest)    (e.g. a fine grid within a coarse grid)
neurovitrification (neurovitrify)
neutralization (neutralize)    (e.g. an odor)
nitrification (nitrify)  (see denitrification)
nourishment (nourish)  (e.g. beach nourishment)
nucleation (nucleate)
nudging (nudge)      (e.g., in climate models)
nullification (nullify)
nutation (nutate)    (in astronomy;  see precession)


obduction (obduct)    (e.g. of one tectonic plate onto another)
obliteration (obliterate)
observation (observe)
obstruction (obstruct)
occlusion (occlude)   (e.g. of a blood vessel)
occultation (occult)   (e.g. in astronomy)
occurrence (occur)
offense (offend, offending)
onset (onset)
oozing (ooze)
opening (open)
operating (operate, operation)      (e.g. operating_presssure)
operation (operate)   (e.g. surgical procedure)
opposing (oppose)
opposition (oppose)   (e.g. in astronomy)
optimization (optimize)
orienting (orient)
origination (originate)
oscillation (oscillate)
osmosis (osmote, osmoting)
outage (out)   (e.g. power outage)
outbreak (outbreak, outbreaking)    (in context of disease)
outburst (outburst)    (e.g. glacial outburst, jokulhlaup)
outcropping (outcrop)
outcrossing (outcross)
outflow (outflow, outflowing)
outgassing (outgas)
overexertion (overexert)
overflow (overflow, overflowing)
overgrazing (overgraze)
overpopulation (overpopulate)
overshoot (overshoot, overshooting)
overturning (overturn)  (in CF)
ovulation (ovulate)
oxidation (oxidize, oxidizing)    (see reduction)
oxychlorination (oxychlorinate)
oxygenation (oxygenate)


packing (pack)   (e.g. packing_factor)
painting (paint)
pairing (pair)
panning (pan)
panspermia (??)
parachuting (parachute)
paralysis (paralyze)
parametrization (parametrize)
pargeting (parget)
participation (participate)
partition (partition, partitioning)   (e.g. partition_ratio is preferred by IUPAC to partition_coefficient)
passing (pass)
passivation (passivate)
patching (patch)
patination (patinate)
paving (pave)
payoff (pay)
peaking (peak)   (e.g. peaking_time ?)
pedaling (pedal)
penetration (penetrate)    (e.g. penetration_depth, e.g. of light into water, etc.)
percolation (percolate)
percussion (percuss)
perforation (perforate, perforating)
perfusion (perfuse)
permineralization (permineralize)
permutation (permute)
peroxidation (peroxidate, peroxidize, peroxidizing)
persistence (persist)   (e.g. persistence_length, persistence_time;  also of video images)
perspiration (perspire)
perturbation (perturb)  (e.g. perturbation_parameter)
petrification (petrify, petrifying)   (e.g. petrification of wood)
phosphorescence (phosphoresce)
phosphorylation (phosphorylate)
photolysis (photolyze)    (also photodissociation, photodecomposition)
photophosphorylation (photophosphorylate)
photorespiration (photorespirate)
photosynthesis (photosynthesize)
picking (pick)
piercing (pierce)
pinching (pinch)
pinging (ping)
pinning (pin)
piping (pipe)
pitching (pitch)   (e.g. vs. yaw)
pitting (pit)
pivoting (pivot)
placement (place)
planation (planate)
planning (plan)
planting (plant)
plastering (plaster)
plowing (plow)  (e.g. plowing roads)
plucking (pluck)    (as in sediment on a streambed)
plugging (plug)
plunging (plunge)
pointing (point)
poisoning (poison)
polarization (polarize)    (e.g. polarization_angle)
polishing (polish)   (e.g. polishing roots with a root finder)
pollination (pollinate)
pollution (pollute)
polymerization (polymerize)   (in chemistry)
ponding (pond)    (e.g. infiltration ponding time or ponding depth)
population (populate)     (population_growth_rate, repopulation_rate ??)
porpoising (porpoise)  (a ground effect of some race cars)
portage (port)
positioning (position)  (e.g. positioning systems)
potentiation (potentiate)   (e.g. long-term potentiation of nerve cells)
pouring (pour)
precession (precess)         (e.g. precession of Mercury;  see nutation)
precipitation (precipitate)
predation (predate or "prey upon")
prediction (predict)
preprocessing (preprocess)
processing (process)
predation (prey, preying)    (e.g. predation_pressure)
preparation (prepare)  (e.g. preparation_time)
preservation (preserve)  (e.g. of food)
preserving (preserve)  (e.g. area preserving or angle preserving transformations)
pressing (press)  (e.g. pressing_ratio and pressure_ratio ??)
pressurization (pressurize)
prevailing (prevail)  (e.g. wind prevailing direction)
prevention (prevent)  (e.g. accident prevention)
priming (prime)  (e.g. priming a pump, stove or engine)
probing (probe)  (e.g. probing_depth in dentistry)
processing (process)
procurement (procure)
production (produce)
progradation (prograde)     (see "aggradation")
projection (project)      (e.g. map projection)
proliferation (proliferate)   (e.g. of dams or nuclear weapons)
prolongation (prolong)
promotion (promote)
propagation (propagate)  (e.g. waves, errors or disease)
proprioception (??)
propulsion (propel)
protection (protect, protecting)
protonation (protonate)
provocation (provoke)
pruning (prune)   (e.g. in network extraction from DEMs)
pulling (pull)
pulmonation (pulmonate)
pulsation (pulsate, pulsating)    (e.g. heart_pulsation_rate vs. pulse_rate)
pulverizing (pulverize)
pumping (pump)    (think about heart_rate vs. heart_pumping_rate, etc.)
puncturing (puncture)
purification (purify)
pushing (push)
putrefaction (putrefy)
pyritization (pyritize)


quarantine (quarantine, quarantining)
quenching (quench)   (rapid cooling; quenching_distance in combustion)
quilting (quilt)   (a modeling term)


race (race, racing)   (e.g. race_time)
radiation (radiate)
radiolocating (radiolocate)   (also radiolocation)
rafting (raft)   (e.g. ice rafting;  sediment transported on or in ice)
rainfall (rainfall, "rainfalling")   (then rainfall_rate is preferred to rain_rate)
raining (rain)
raise (raising)
ramping (ramp)
rancidification (rancidify)
ranging (range)  (also in combinations like "free_ranging" & laser_ranging; see "alteration")
ranking (rank)
rarefaction (rarefy)      (opposite of compression)
ratcheting (ratchet)
rating (rate)    (e.g. rating_coefficient)
reaction (react)    (e.g. reaction_time)
readjustment (readjust)
reaping (reap)
reaeration (reaerate)  (e.g. reaeration_coefficient)
reassessment (reassess)
reattachment (reattach)  (e.g. in fluid dynamics of separated flows)
rebound (rebound, rebounding?)     (e.g. rebound_angle, isostatic rebound)
reception (receive, receiving)
recession (recede)
recharge (recharge, recharging)   (see discharge)
reciprocating (reciprocate)    (e.g. reciprocating motion)
recirculation (recirculate)
reckoning (reckon)   (e.g. dead reckoning)
reclamation (reclaim)    (e.g. water reclamation)
recognition (recognize)     (e.g. pattern recognition)
recombination (recombine)  (e.g. in genetics)
reconciliation (reconcile)
reconditioning (recondition)   (e.g. surface reconditioning)
reconnection (reconnect)  (e.g. magnetic reconnection)
reconstruction (reconstruct)
recovery (recover)
recruitment (recruit)
rectifying (rectify)
recurrence (recur)
recursion (recurse)
recycling (recycle)   (e.g. nutrient recycling)
redirection (redirect)
redistribution (redistribute)    (e.g. of water in soil or of snow by wind)
reduction (reduce)
reducing  (reduce,  e.g. chemistry:  reducing atmosphere)
reading (read)    (e.g. reading input files)
reeling (reel)
reentry (reenter, e.g. rentry_speed)
refinement (refine)     (e.g. grid refinement)
refining (refine)
reflection (reflect)   (e.g. sonar signals)
refraction (refract)   (see "diffraction")
refreshing (refresh)   (e.g. refresh_rate for monitors, aquariums?, refreshment)
refrigeration (refrigerate)
refueling (refuel)
refurbishing (refurbish)
regelation (regelate?)  (e.g. at the beds of glaciers)
regeneration (regenerate)    (e.g. ability to regenerate limbs)
registration (register)   (e.g. registration of two grids)
regression (regress)   (see "transgression")
regridding (regrid)
regulation (regulate)
regurgitation (regurgitate)
rehabilitation (rehabilitate)
reinforcement (reinforce)   (e.g. positive and negative; or in construction)
reintroduction (reintroduce)   (e.g. a species)
rejection (reject)
relaxation (relax)     (e.g. relaxation_time;  used in CF)
relay (relay, relaying)
releasing (release)
relief (relieve)
relocation (relocate)
remediation (remediate)    (e.g. environmental remediation)
remineralization (remineralize)
remission (remit, remitting)
removal (remove)
rendition (render, rendering)
renewal (renew)
repair (repair, repairing)
repelling (repel)
repercussion (repercuss)
replacement (replace)
replenishment (replenish)   (e.g. beach replenishment;  see nourishment)
replication (replicate)      (e.g. DNA, virus;  self_replication)
repopulation (repopulate)
repose (repose, resposing)   (e.g. repose_angle)
reproduction (reproduce; see production)
reprogramming (reprogram)   (e.g. in genetics)
repulsion (repulse, repulsing)   (see: repelling)
requesting (request)
rescaling (rescale)   (see upscaling, downscaling)
rescue (rescue, rescuing)
reset (reset, resetting)
residence (reside)    (residence_time)
resilience (resilient, but not a verb  #########)
resistance (resist)    (resistance is also used as a quantity)
resisting (resist)   (e.g. resisting_force)
resolving (resolve, resolution)   (e.g. resolving power)
resonance (resonate)
respiration (respirate)
response (respond, responding)
rest (rest, resting)     (e.g. rest_mass and rest_energy)
restitution (restitute)
restoration (restore) (in CF)
restoring (restore)   (e.g. restoring_force)
restraining (restrain)  (e.g. restraining force)
resurfacing (resurface)  (e.g. medical procedure)
resuscitation (resuscitate)  (e.g. CPR)
resuspension (resuspend)
retarding (retard, retardation)
retention (retain)            (e.g. retention pond and water retention in soil)
retooling (retool)
retraction (retract)   (e.g. of an arm)
retreat (retreat, retreating)   (e.g. glacier__retreat_rate)
retrieval (retrieve)
retrofit (retrofit, retrofitting)
retrogradation (retrograde)   (see aggradation, progradation)
return (return, returning)   (e.g. return flow, return period)
reuse (reuse, reusing)
revegetation (revegetate)
reverberation (reverberate)
reversal (reverse)            (e.g. magnetic pole reversal)
reverse_engineering (reverse_engineer)
reversion (revert)
revolution (revolve)
reworking (rework)
ricocheting (ricochet)
ridging (ridge)    (used in ice dynamics)
riding (ride)
rifting (rift)  (used in geodynamics)
righting (right)   (e.g. righting a ship)
riming (rime)    (in CF)    (e.g. of ice in the atmosphere)
rinsing (rinse)
rip (rip, ripping)   (e.g. rip current)
ripening (ripen)   (e.g. snow, fruit, concrete or clay)
rising (rise)   (e.g. rising_time, rising limb, sea level rise;  see sunrise and raise)
risk (risk, risking)  (e.g. risk_factor)
rockfall (from falling rock)
rocking (rock)   (a type of molecular vibration)
rollback (e.g. in geodynamics)
rolling (roll)    (see pitching, sliding, slipping, yawing)
rotation  (rotate)  (e.g. crop rotation)
roughnening (roughen)
routing (route)      (e.g. flow_routing, bank_routing_number)
rubbing (rub)
running (run)      (e.g. running_time or run_time)
runoff    (runoff, "running off")
runup     (runup, "running up", waves coming onshore, uprush?)
rupturing (rupture)


saccharification (saccharificate)
sailing (sail)
saltation (saltate)   ("hopping" of sediment grains; also used in biology)
sampling (sample)
sanding (sand)
sanitation (sanitate)
sanitization (sanitize)
sapping (sap)  (e.g. groundwater sapping)
saturation (saturate)
saving (save)
scaling (scale)  (e.g. changing scale, scaling a wall or scaling a fish, e.g. scale_factor)
scanning (scan)
scarring (scar)
scattering (scatter)
scavenging (scavenge)
scintillation (scintillate)
scouring (scour)
scratch (scratch, scratching)  (e.g. scratch_hardness)
screening (screen)    (e.g. debye_huckel_screening_length)
sealing (seal)  (e.g. induction sealing, sealing wax)
searching (search)     (e.g. search_radius)
seating (seat)   (e.g. seating capacity)
seclusion (seclude)
secretion (secrete)
sectioning (section)
securing (secure)
sedimentation (sediment)  (in CF)
seeding (seed)    (e.g. cloud seeding)
seeking (seek)    (e.g. heat_seeking_missile)
seepage (seep, seeping)
segregation (segregate)   (e.g. ice segregation in arctic hydrology)
seizure (seize)
selection (select)   (e.g. natural selection)
sensing (sense)     (e.g. remote_sensing)
separation (separate)   (e.g. flow separation or saucer section separation)
sequencing (sequence)   (e.g. DNA or genome sequencing)
sequestration  (sequester)
serotyping (serotype)
setting (set)      (e.g. setting_time of the sun or concrete)
settling (settle)    (e.g. stokes_settling_velocity)
sewing (sew)
shading (shade)
shadowing (shadow)
shaking (shake)  (e.g. shaking_amplitude for earthquakes)
shaping (shape)   (e.g. shaping time)
sharing (share)
shattering (shatter)  (e.g. frost and salt)
shear (shear, shearing)     (e.g. shearing_stress (Batchelor, 1988), or just shear_stress)
shedding (shed)      (e.g. vortex shedding)
shielding (shield)   (e.g. for cables; see egress and ingress)
shifting (shift)
shoaling (shoal)
shooting (shoot)  (e.g. shooting methods)
shortage (short)    (short can be a verb)
shredding (shred)
shrinkage (shrink)
shrinking (shrink)
shunting (shunt)
sideslip (sideslip, sideslipping)   (e.g. sideslip_angle)
sieving (sieve)
sifting (sift)
sighting (sight)   (e.g. whale_sighting_rate)
signaling (signal)
silencing (silence)
silicification (silicify)
silting  ("silt up")    (e.g. reservoir_silting_rate)
simulation (simulate)   (but simulation is also a noun)
sinking (sink)  (e.g. sinking_rate, sinking_deltas ??)
sintering (sinter)
siphoning (siphon)
siping (sipe)  (of automobile tires)
skating (skate)   ####
skeletonization (skeletonize)
skidding (skid)
skimming (skim)
sliding (slide)    (e.g. land_ice_basal_sliding_rate)
slippage (slip)  (e.g. splippage_speed)
slipping (slip)
sluicing (sluice)
slumping (slump)
smelting (smelt)  (e.g. in metallurgy)
smoking (smoke)  (e.g. smoking meat)
smoothing (smooth)   (see "roughening")
snowfall (snowfall, "snowfalling")
softening (soften)
solidification (solidify)
solifluction (but solifluct is not a verb?  [soli=soil, fluct=flow] same as creep?)
solstice (solstice, solsticing)  (e.g. solstice_time; as something the earth is doing)
solutioning  (cave formation process)
sonication (sonicate)
sorption (see absorption, adsorption)
sorting (sort)       (e.g. sediment sorting in a stream)
sounding (sound)     (e.g. sounding_depth, sonar signals, also "ping_rate")
sourcing (source)
sowing (sow)
spallation (spall)
spanning (span)   (e.g. minimal spanning tree)
sparging (sparge)  (e.g. a chemistry process, also in beer making)
sparing (spare)      (e.g. of glycogen or protein or steroids)
spawning (spawn)
speciation (speciate)
spillover (spillover)
spinning (spin)
splaying (splay)   (e.g. crevasse splay of a levee)
splintering (splinter)   (e.g. of ice in the atmosphere)
splinting (splint)
splitting (split)     (e.g. cell division)
spreading (spread)    (sea_floor_spreading_rate, mid_ocean_ridge_spreading_rate)
sprouting (sprout)
sputtering (sputter)
stabilization (stabilize)
stacking (stack)   (e.g stacking_height)
staggering (stagger)    (e.g. of model grids)
staging (stage)         (e.g. of rockets, e.g. staging_period)
stagnation (stagnate)   (e.g. stagnation_pressure and stagnation point in fluid dynamics)
staining (stain)     (e.g. in medical studies)
stalling (stall)        (as in aerodynamics)
standing (stand)   (e.g. standing wave)
starting (start)        (e.g. starting_date;  see stopping)
starvation (starve, starving)
stasis  (stasis)        ("suspended animation", only in fiction ??)
steering (steer)        (e.g. topographic steering)
stemflow (stemflow)
stepping (step)         (e.g. time_stepping)
sterilization (sterilize)
stifling (stifle)
stimulation (stimulate)
stirring (stir)
stitching (stitch)
stocking (stock)
stoking (stoke)
stoppage (stop)
stopping (stop)         (see starting)
storage (store)
stitching (stitch)
strafing (strafe)
straightening (straighten)
straining (strain)      (e.g. applied loads)
stratification (stratify)
strengthening (strengthen)
stressing (stress)    (as in ecosystem stress;  stress is also a quantity)
stretching (stretch)   (a type of molecular vibration and vortex stretching)
striking (strike)       (e.g. striking_distance)
strobing (strobe)
subduction (subduct)
subitizing (subitize)
sublimation (sublimate)
submersion (submerge, submerse)
submission (submit)
subsampling (subsample)
subsidence (subside)
subtraction (subtract)
subvocalization (subvocalize)
success (succeed, succeeding)  (see failure)
succession (succeed)   (e.g. ecological succession)
suckering (sucker)
suction (suck, sucking)
suffusion (suffuse)              (e.g. in sinkhole formation)
sunrise (sunrise, "sun rising")
sunset (sunset, "sun setting")
sunshine (sunshine, sunshining)   (e.g. sunshine_duration)
superconduction (superconduct)
supercooling (supercool)
superheating (superheat)
superposition (superpose)     (and superimposition, superimpose)
supersaturation (supersaturate)
supply (supply, supplying)
supporting (support)
suppression (suppress)     (e.g. fire_suppression_rate)
surfacing (surface)
surge (surge, surging)     (e.g. surge_height of a storm surge)
### surgery (see operation)
surrounding (surround)
surveying (survey)
survival (survive)         (e.g. infant_survival_rate)
suspension (suspend)
suturing (suture)
swabbing (swab)  (e.g. in wells)
swaying (sway)  (e.g. of a boat)
sweeping (sweep)
sweetening (sweeten)
swell (swell, swelling)    (e.g. swell_wave)
swimming (swim)
switching (switch)   (e.g. switching_time)
symbiosis (verb form ??)
synchronization (synchronize)
synnecrosis (verb form ??)  (similar to symbiosis, but detrimental to both organisms)
synthesis (synthesize)
syzygy  ###### (alignment of 3 celestial bodies in a line)


tabulation (tabulate)
tacking (tack)              (e.g. of sailboats)
tagging (tag)               (e.g. genetic tagging)
tailspin  (tailspin, tailspinning)
taking (take)
takeoff (takeoff)   (e.g. takeoff_distance or takeoff_speed of an airplane, from "taking off")
takeover (take, from "taking over")
tampering (tamper)
tamping (tamp)
tapering (taper)
tapping (tap)
targeting (target)
teardown (teardown, from tearing down)  (taking something apart, like a gun)
teleconnection (teleconnect)
telecoupling (telecouple)
teleportation (teleport)
tempering (temper)          (e.g. steel_tempering)
tension (tense, tensing)    (e.g. surface_tension)
termination (terminate)
terraforming (terraform)
testing (test)
thaw (thaw, thawing)     (e.g. permafrost_thaw_rate, soil_thaw_depth)
thermoregulation (thermoregulate)
thermosetting (thermoset)
thickening (thicken)
thinning (thin)    (e.g. shear thinning fluid, thinning a forest)
thrombosis (verb form ??)
throttling (throttle)    (e.g. Joule-Thomson throttling process in gas dynamics)
throughfall (throughfall, "throughfalling")
throughflow (throughflow)   (see baseflow, interflow)
thrust (thrust, thrusting)     (drag, lift)
tillage (till)
tilling (till)
tilt (tilt, tilting)     (e.g. earth_axis_tilt_angle)
tipping (tip)
titration (titrate)
torquing (torque)
toughening (toughen)   (process to create tempered glass, e.g. safety glass)
tracking (track)    (e.g. particle tracking, storm tracking)
traction #############
tradeoff (tradeoff)   (i.e. trading off)
trailing (trail)
training (train)
transaction (transact)
transcription (transcribe)     (e.g. in genetics)
transduction (transduct)   (e.g. in genetics)
transfection (transfect)  (e.g. in genetics)
transfer (transfer, transferring?)   (e.g. gene transfer)
transformation (transform)
transfusion (transfuse)
transgression (transgress)   (e.g. marine transgression;  see regression)
transit (transit)   (e.g. a transit of venus in astronomy; transit_duration)
transition (transit)   (e.g. phase transition, atomic electron transition, glass transition temperature)
translation (translate)   (e.g. in biology)
transmission (transmit)
transmutation (transmute)  (e.g. of species)
transpiration (transpire)
transplantation (transplant, transplanting)   (e.g. organ transplantation)
transport  (transport, transportation)
transudation (transude)
trapping (trap)  (e.g. of atoms, sediment;  e.g. trapping efficiency)
traversal (traverse)  ??
treatment (treat)   (e.g. sewage_treatment)
treefall (treefall)
treethrow (treethrow, treethrowing?)
trending (trend)
triage    #### from French
trial (try, trying)  (e.g. trial_period)
triangulation (triangulate)
triggering (trigger)
trilateration (trilaterate)
tripping (trip)  (as in trip wire)
trituration (triturate)
trophobiosis (verb form?)
tuning (tune)
tunneling (tunnel)    (e.g. digging a tunnel or quantum tunneling, e.g. tunneling_current)
turning (turn)   (e.g. turning_number, turning_radius)
turnout (turnout)   (e.g. of voters)
turnover (turnover)  (e.g. cell replacement, e.g. turnover_rate, turnover_ratio, turnover_time)
twirling (twirl)  (e.g. baton, dervish, DNA, spaghetti)
twisting (twist)   (a type of molecular vibration, e.g. twisting_number)
twitching (twitch)  (e.g. muscle twitching, fast/slow twitch)
typing (type)  (e.g. to determine the type, as in phage typing)


underdrag (underdrag, underdragging)
undershoot (undershoot, undershooting)
undertow (undertow, undertowing)
undulation (undulate)
union (unite, uniting)    (contrast with intersection)
unravelling (unravel)
unzipping (unzip)  (e.g. DNA)
updraft (updraft, updrafting)    (see downdraft)
upheaval (upheave)
uplift (uplift, uplifting)    (bedrock_uplift_rate)
upscaling (upscale)
uptake (uptake, uptaking)
upwelling (upwell)
urbanization (urbanize)
usage (use)   (e.g. urban water usage)
utilization (utilize)


vaccination (vaccinate)
validation (validate)
vaporization (vaporize, vaporizing)
variation (vary)  (e.g. variation coefficient)
variolation (variolate)  (e.g. smallpox variolation)
varying (vary)
vasoconstriction (vasoconstrict)
vasodilation (vasodilate)
vellication (vellicate)
ventilation (ventilate)
verification (verify)
vibration (vibrate)
viewing (view)      (e.g. viewing_angle)
violation (violate)
vitrification (vitrify)
vocalization (vocalize)
volatilization (volatilize)
volition (???)    (e.g. in psychology)
vortexing (vortex)
vulcanization (vulcanize)   (using sulfur to strengthen rubber)


wagging (wag)    (e.g. a type of molecular vibration)
waiting (wait)  (e.g. waiting_period)
warming (warm)   (e.g. global warming)
warning (warn)   (e.g. warning_period, warning_time for tornadoes)
washing (wash)
washoff (washoff)  (e.g. of pollutants)
wasting (waste)  (e.g. mass wasting)
watering (water)
waterproofing (waterproof)
weakening (weaken)
weathering (weather)  (e.g. chemical, frost, mechanical and physical)
weaving (weave)
wedging (wedge)  (e.g. frost wedging, ice wedging)
weighting (weight)
welding (weld)
wetting (wet)    (e.g. wetting front)
whitening (whiten)  (e.g. tooth whitening)
wicking (wick)  (e.g. wicking_time)
wilting (wilt)   (e.g. wilting_point_water_content)
winding (wind)  (e.g. winding_number)
winnowing (winnow)
wiping (wipe)  (e.g. windshield_wiper__wiping_frequency)
withdrawal (withdraw)   (e.g. ground_water_withdrawal_rate)
withering (wither)      (e.g. plant withering rate)
writing (write)   (e.g. writing output files)


xenografting (xenograft)
xenotransplantation (xenotransplant)


yawing (yaw)
yielding (yield)


zipping (zip)   (e.g. DNA)
zoning (zone)