Under graduate (13-16), Graduate / Professional
Cuspate spits are here simulated with the Coastline Evolution Model (CEM) of Andrew Ashton.
Sediment transport occurs under the influence of longshore transport that is driven by wave action.
Coastal spits form and built out with time, the colors are coded for depositional age.
In this particular animation the incoming far-field wave distribution is weighted so that high angles with the shoreline are dominant, and the wave direction is predominantly from the left.
Ashton, A, A.B. Murray, and O. Arnoult. 2001. "Formation of coastline features by large-scale instabilities induced by high-angle waves." Nature 414: 296-300.
Ashton, A. D. and A. B. Murray. 2006a. "High-angle wave instability and emergent shoreline shapes: 1. Modeling of sand waves, flying spits, and capes. Journal of Geophysical Research 111. F04011, doi:10.1029/2005JF000422.
Ashton, A. D. and A. B. Murray. 2006b. "High-angle wave instability and emergent shoreline shapes: 2. Wave climate analysis and comparisons to nature. Journal of Geophysical Research 111. F04012, doi:10.1029/2005JF000423.
Lazarus, E.D., and Murray, A.B., 2007, Process Signatures in regional patterns of shoreline change on annual to decadal timescales, Geophysical Research Letters 34, L19402, doi:10.1029/2007GL031047.
Slott, J., Murray, A.B., Ashton, A., and Crowley, T., 2006 Coastline responses to changing storm patterns, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L18404, doi:10.1029/2006GL027445.
Valvo, L. M., A. B. Murray, and A. Ashton. 2006. How does underyling geology affect coastline change? An initial modeling investigation. Journal of Geophysical Research 111. F02025, doi:10.1029/2005JF000340.